Nnka-Celise Craig

University of Rhode Island

History, Political Science, & African American Studies


Mentor: Professor Funso Afolayan

Cyclical Patterns: Foreshadowing Social Reform at the end of the 20th Century

Social reforms constant instability encourages the lack of interest shown towards its distinct historical patterns. In American history there have been two revolutionary movements that had a dramatic impact on the role of social reform. These movements are known as First Reconstruction and Second Reconstruction. Legal judgements associated with each Reconstruction reveal recurrent patterns, which have potential significance for understanding where social reform is headed at the end of the 20th Century.

Measuring the perception of the youth on present social reform issues will help to predict the future of social reform. If modern social reform issues call for changes, the youth will deal with it. The culture of the 1990s has harnessed a profound generation, with the decline in education it is questionable if youth recognize social reform issues.

In order to understand the full ramifications of the future of social reform, it was imperative that the historical background displays a recurrent pattern. In order to establish validity an in depth study was conducted using an historical comparative and analytical approach to isolate the exact patterns. These patterns reflected a strong possibility for revolutionary actions.

In this study I first determined what phase were currently in, Reconstruction or post Reconstruction. When this was established interviews were conducted with youth to distinguish the perception held in regards to social reform issues. The interviews and surveys attempted to see structural perceptions to understand where social reform is headed at the end of the 20th century.

Generational perceptions were useful to anticipate what the youth population viewed as the answer to the increasing instability in social reform. To create a system that maintains social stability we must begin to equalize opportunity for liberal and conservatives, elite and the average workers, Democrats and Republicans.

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