In accordance with the Rosenberg International Franchise Center (RIFC) mission to conduct research and provide educational material about franchising, we have compiled bibliography lists on international franchise, social franchise, and franchise finance academic research to assist students, entrepreneurs, and the wider franchise community.
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Babich, V., & Tang, C. S. (2016). Franchise Contracting: The Effects of The Entrepreneur's Timing Option and Debt Financing. Production and Operations Management, 25(4), 662-683.
Bezemer, J. (2003, April). Notes of the presentation of Jan Bezemer on the financing of franchise networks. In ICPE Conference.
Bono, J. D. (1993). A Study of Franchise Financing, Performance Projections, and the Relationship Between the Franchisee and the Franchisor as the Major Obstacles to Successful Franchise Operations. Doctoral dissertation, Fontbonne College.
Ciećwierz, J. (2016). Franchising as a form of financing small and medium-sized enterprises in Poland on the example of retail chains Peter and Paul (Doctoral dissertation, Kolegium Nauk Ekonomicznych i Społecznych w Płocku).
Daszkowaki, D. (2010). Ease of Obtaining Franchise Financing. Available from: Franchise Training Programs. htm [Accesspried: 22/05/2010][Links].
Doty, J. L. (1971). Financing Franchise Systems. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 12(2), 17-22.
Fielder, S., & Kanwar, C. (2015). Crowdfunding and Franchising. Int'l J. Franchising L., 13, 35.
Fine, P. D. (1968). Financing Franchise Expansion. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 9(3), 17-20.
Fine, P. D. (1969). Financing Franchise Expansion. Com. LJ, 74, 69.
Haley, G. (1992). Private finance for transportation and infrastructure projects: a view. International Journal of Project Management, 10(2), 63-68.
He, S. Q. (2008). Create good legal environment for public utilities adoption of the market principle based on franchise financing viewpoint. Pub Util, 2, 1-4.
Ibru, C. (2007). Financing Franchise through the small and medium enterprises equity investment scheme. In ATCTO Franchise Seminar paper. Thursday, May (Vol. 10, pp. 1-10).
Kirby, D. A., & Watson, A. (2003). Overcoming the financial constraints on small firm growth: the case of franchising. The Journal of Private Equity, 61-67.
Knight, R. M. (1986). Franchising from the franchisor and franchisee points of view. Journal of small business management, 24, 8.
Kotow, J. M. (1988). Borrower's Viewpoint: Financing a Franchise. Journal of Commercial Bank Unding. 70 (8): 41, 44.
Mat Hassan, E. (1998). PNS role in financing your franchise business. In Paper from the proceedings of The Malaysia Franchise Exhibition & Conference.
Mittelstaedt, R. A., & Peterson, M. O. (1980). Franchising and the Financing of Small Business. Interagency Task Force on Small Business Finance.
Nan, D., Lin, F., & Si, X. (2017). The Effect of Direct Financing on the Bank Franchise Value——An Empirical Study of Panzar-Rosse Model. Studies of International Finance, 6, 007.
Nilssen, D. (2008). Alternative Franchise Financing Can Close the Gap. FRANCHISING WORLD, 40(6), 33.
Park, K., & Jang, S. S. (2017). Is restaurant franchising capital a substitute for or a complement to debt?. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 63, 63-71.
Park, K., & Jang, S. S. (2018). Pecking order puzzle: Restaurant firms’ unique financing behaviors. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 70, 99-109.
Park, K., & Jang, S. (2018). Is franchising an additional financing source for franchisors? A Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition analysis. Tourism Economics, 1354816618757561.
Quindlen, T. (2004). In Franchise Financing, Flexibility Counts. FRANCHISING WORLD, 36(9), 21-22.
Savilonis, K. J. (2003). Think Flexibility in Franchise Financing. FRANCHISING WORLD, 35(7), 9-14.
Shane, S. A. (1996). Why franchise companies expand overseas. Journal of Business Venturing, 11(2), 73-88.
Sofijanova, E., & Stoimilova, N. (2016). Franchising and Leasing as a Support for the Growth of Small Businesses. Journal of Economics, 1(1).
Tyszka, A. (2016). Franchising as an alternative source of financing the company at the example of chosen gastronomic corporation (Doctoral dissertation, Zakład Polityki Społeczno-Gospodarczej).
Whittemore, M., Sherman, A. J., & Hotch, R. (1993). Financing your franchise. McGraw-Hill.
Xinyu, G. (2014). Strengthening Public Affairs through Project Financing of the Franchise Contract Foreign Intervention.
Abell, M., Fielder, S., & Singh, M. (2014). Bitcoin and international franchising. Int'l J. Franchising L., 12, 33.
Alharbi, M. M. M. (2015). The potential Impact of International Franchising in Promoting and Developing Tourism Business in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).
Aliouche, E. H. (2017). 15. International franchising: optimal market selection. Handbook of Research on Franchising, 295.
Aliouche E.H.; Bonet Fernandez D.; Chanut O.; Gharbi N. (2015)“Institutional Environments and the Internationalization of Franchise Chains: The Contrasting Cases of Three North African Countries", Journal of Applied Business Research, 31(2), 417-436
Aliouche, E. H., & Schlentrich, U. A. (2008). International franchise assessment model: Entry and expansion in the European Union. Entrepreneurial Bus. LJ, 3, 517.
Aliouche E.H., Schlentrich U. (2011). “Towards a Strategic Model of Global Franchise Expansion.” Journal of Retailing, 87 (3, 2011), 345-365
Aliouche, E. H., & Schlentrich, U. (2011). A model of optimal international market expansion: The case of US hotel chains expansion into China. In New developments in the theory of networks (pp. 135-154). Physica, Heidelberg.
Aliouche E.H., Schlentrich U., Frazer L. (2012). “Internationalization Modeling: A Comparative Analysis of American and Australian Franchise Firms.”Journal of Marketing Channels, 19:77-9
Alon, I. (2000). The organizational determinants of master international franchising. Journal of business and entrepreneurship, 12(2), 1.
Alon, I. (2001). International franchising in China with Kodak. Thunderbird International Business Review, 43(6), 737-754.
Alon, I. (2004). Global franchising and development in emerging and transitioning markets. Journal of Macromarketing, 24(2), 156-167.
Alon, I. (2006). Master international franchising in China: the case of The Athlete's Foot. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 4(1), 41-51.
Alon, I. (2006). Market conditions favoring master international franchising. Multinational Business Review, 14(2), 67-82.
Alon, I. (2012). Global franchising operations management: Cases in international and emerging markets operations. FT Press.
Alon, I. (2014). The internationalization of US franchising systems. Routledge.
Alon, I. (2016). Master International Franchising in China: The Case of the Athlete’s Foot. In Market Entry in China (pp. 133-145). Springer, Cham.
Alon, I., & McKee, D. (1999). Towards a macro environmental model of international franchising. Multinational Business Review, 7(1), 76.
Alon, I., & Shoham, A. (2010). Clustering for international market selection. In Franchising Globally (pp. 73-90). Palgrave Macmillan, London.
Alon, I., Toncar, M., & Le, L. (2002). American franchising competitiveness in China. Journal of Global Competitiveness, 10(1), 65-83.
Alon, I., Toncar, M., & McKee, D. (2000). Evaluating foreign-market environments for international franchising expansion. Foreign Trade Review, 35(1), 1-11.
Alon, I., Ni, L., & Wang, R. Y. (2010). Internationalization of franchising. In Franchising globally (pp. 54-72). Palgrave Macmillan, London.
Alon, I., Ni, L., & Wang, Y. (2012). Examining the determinants of hotel chain expansion through international franchising. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(2), 379-386.
Alon, I., Welsh, D. H., (2002). Global franchising in emerging and transitioning economies. International Journal of Business and Economics, 2(1), 332-343.
Alon, I., & Welsh, D. H. (2003). International franchising in industrialized markets: Western and Northern Europe. CCH Incorporated.
Altinay, L. (2004). Implementing international franchising: the role of intrapreneurship. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 15(5), 426-443.
Altinay, L. (2006). Selecting partners in an international franchise organisation. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 25(1), 108-128.
Altinay, L., & Miles, S. (2006). International franchising decision-making: An application of stakeholder theory. The Service Industries Journal, 26(4), 421-436.
Anttonen, N., Tuunanen, M., & Alon, I. (2005). The international business environments of franchising in Russia. Academy of Marketing Science Review, 2005, 1.
Altinay, L., & Wang, C. L. (2006). The role of prior knowledge in international franchise partner recruitment. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 17(5), 430-443.
Attard, C., Lindsey, M., Metzlaff, K., & Pratt, J. (2014). Internet Issues in International Franchising. Int'l J. Franchising L., 12, 11.
Aydin, N., & Kacker, M. (1990). International outlook of US-based franchisers. International Marketing Review, 7(2).
Bae, H. (2016). Essay on the Lessons Learned from Korean Franchisors Going International. 프랜차이즈경영연구, 7(1), 5-11.
Baena, V. (2009). Modeling global franchising in emerging markets: An entry mode analysis. Journal of East-West Business, 15(3-4), 164-188.
Baena, V. (2012). Market conditions driving international franchising in emerging markets. International Journal of Emerging Markets, 7(1), 49-71.
Baena, V. (2013). Insights on international franchising: entry mode decision. Latin American Business Review, 14(1), 1-27.
Baena, V., & Cervino, J. (2012). International franchise expansion of service chains: insights from the Spanish market. The Service Industries Journal, 32(7), 1121-1136.
Baena, V., & Cerviño, J. (2014). International franchising decision-making: A model for country choice. Latin American Business Review, 15(1), 13-43.
Burton, F., & Cross, A. R. (1997). International franchising: market versus hierarchy. In Internationalisation strategies (pp. 135-152). Palgrave Macmillan, London.
Burton, F., & Cross, A. R. (2015). A Reappraisal of Franchising Across National Boundaries in Foreign Market Entry Mode Analysis. In Proceedings of the 1993 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference (pp. 638-642). Springer, Cham.
Byrd, K., & Ross, L. (2015). Global Opportunity Identification: Exploratory Analysis of the Precursors of Franchisor International Growth and Development.
Chen, Y., Justis, R. T., & Yang, H. L. (2004, March). Global e-business, international franchising, and theory of Netchising: A research alliance of east and west. In Proceedings of the 18th Annual International Society of Franchising Conference (pp. 5-7).
Chen, H. H. (2010). The explanations of agency theory on international multi-unit franchising in the Taiwanese marketplace. International Journal of Organizational Innovation (Online), 3(1), 53.
Cheng, J. M. S., Lin, J. Y. C., Tu, H. H., & Wu, N. S. (2007). Toward a stage model of the international franchise system development: The experience of firms from Taiwan. Journal of Marketing Channels, 14(4), 65-83.
Choo, S. (2003). Determining the Critical Success Factors of International Franchising: Cases of Foreign Franchisors in East Asia.
Choo, S. (2005). Determinants of monitoring capabilities in international franchising: foodservice firms within East Asia. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 22(2), 159-177.
Choo, S., Mazzarol, T., & Soutar, G. (2007). The selection of international retail franchisees in East Asia. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 19(4), 380-397.
Dana, L. P. (Ed.). (2004). Handbook of research on international entrepreneurship. Edward Elgar Publishing.
Dant, R. P., & Grünhagen, M. (2014). International franchising research: Some thoughts on the what, where, when, and how. Journal of Marketing Channels, 21(3), 124-132.
Dev, C. S., Erramilli, M. K., & Agarwal, S. (2002). Brands across borders: determining factors in choosing franchising or management contracts for entering international markets. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 43(6), 91-104.
Dinu, A. M. (2016). Understanding the risks of international franchising. Quaestus, (8), 363.
Doherty, A. M. (2009). Market and partner selection processes in international retail franchising. Journal of Business Research, 62(5), 528-534.
Doherty, A. M. (2007). Support mechanisms in international retail franchise networks. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 35(10), 781-802.
Doherty, A. M., & Alexander, N. (2004). Relationship development in international retail franchising: Case study evidence from the UK fashion sector. European journal of marketing, 38(9/10), 1215-1235.
Doherty, A. M., & Alexander, N. (2006). Power and control in international retail franchising. European Journal of Marketing, 40(11/12), 1292-1316.
Dunning, J. H., Pak, Y. S., & Beldona, S. (2007). Foreign ownership strategies of UK and US international franchisors: An exploratory application of Dunning's envelope paradigm. International Business Review, 16(5), 531-548.
Eckhardt, D. (2015). International Franchising: How Agency Theory and Transaction Cost Theory Determine the Choice of Governance Structure (Doctoral dissertation, uniwien).
Elango, B. (2007). Are franchisors with international operations different from those who are domestic market oriented?. Journal of Small Business Management, 45(2), 179-193.
Falbe, C. M., & Welsh, D. H. (1998). NAFTA and franchising: A comparison of franchisor perceptions of characteristics associated with franchisee success and failure in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. Journal of Business Venturing, 13(2), 151-171.
Fladmoe-Lindquist, K. (1996). International franchising: Capabilities and development. Journal of Business Venturing, 11(5), 419-438.
Fladmoe-Lindquist, K. (2000). 9 International franchising. Globalization of services: Some implications for theory and practice, 19, 197.
Floriani, B., & Lindsey, M. K. (2002). The continuing impact of the Internet on international franchising. Bus. L. Int'l, 86.
Frazer, L., Merrilees, B., & Bodey, K. (2007). Franchisors do their homework before entering international markets: Experiences from the Australian franchising sector. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 3(4), 437-452.
Garg, V. K., & Rasheed, A. A. (2003). International multi-unit franchising: an agency theoretic explanation. International Business Review, 12(3), 329-348.
Garg, V. K., & Rasheed, A. A. (2006). An explanation of international franchisors’ preference for multi-unit franchising. International Journal of Entrepreneurship, 10(1), 1-20.
Ghantous, N., Das, S. S., & Chameroy, F. (2018). Governance capabilities and relationship performance in international franchising. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 40, 19-30.
Giller, R. A., Wiselgren, S. L., & Gladdis, L. (2014). Enforcing arbitration awards in international franchising. Franchise LJ, 34, 351.
Gotsopoulou, N. (2000). Legal issues on international franchising and electronic commerce. Business Law Review, 21(12), 288-290.
Grewal, D., Iyer, G. R., Javalgi, R. R. G., & Radulovich, L. (2011). Franchise partnership and international expansion: a conceptual framework and research propositions. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 35(3), 533-557.
Grünhagen, Marko, Rajiv P. Dant and Mingxia Zhu (2012), “Emerging Consumer Perspectives on American Franchise Offerings: Variety Seeking Behavior in China,” Journal of Small Business Management, 50 (4), 596-620.
Grünhagen, Marko, Carl L. Witte and Susie Pryor (2010), “Effects of U.S.-based Franchising in the Developing World: A Middle-Eastern Consumer Perspective,” Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 9 (1), 1-17 (Lead Article).
Grünhagen, Marko and Carl L. Witte (2005), “The Role of Franchising as a Driver of Economic Development for Emerging Economies,” Journal of Business, Industry and Economics, 5 (Spring), 27-45.
Grünhagen, Marko and Robert A. Mittelstaedt (2003), “Multi-Unit Franchising: A New Opportunity for Franchisees Globally?,” in: Welsh, D.H.B. and Alon, I. (eds.), International Franchising: North America, the Pacific Rim, and Other Countries, Chicago, IL: CCH Inc., 95-115, ISBN 0-8080-0927-3.
Hadjimarcou, J., & Barnes, J. W. (1998). Case study: strategic alliances in international franchising-the entry of Silver Streak Restaurant Corporation into Mexico. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 15(6), 598-607.
Hawkes, C. K., & Bandyopadhyay, S. (2002). International growth of US franchising: Cultural and legal barriers. International Franchising in Emerging Markets: Central and Eastern Europe and Latin America, 199-207.
Herndon, N. C. (2014). International franchising research and practice: Past, present, and future.
Heung, V. C., Zhang, H., & Jiang, C. (2008). International franchising: opportunities for China's state-owned hotels?. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 27(3), 368-380.
Hoffman, R. C., Munemo, J., & Watson, S. (2016). International franchise expansion: the role of institutions and transaction costs. Journal of International Management, 22(2), 101-114.
Hoffman, R. C., & Preble, J. F. (2004). Global franchising: Current status and future challenges. Journal of Services Marketing, 18(2), 101-113.
Hoffman, R. C., Watson, S., & Preble, J. F. (2016). International Expansion of United States Franchisors: A Status Report and Propositions for Future Research. Journal of Marketing Channels, 23(4), 180-195.
Hoy, F., & Stanworth, J. (2014). Franchising: an international perspective. Routledge.
Hunter Jr, R. J., & Lozada, H. R. (2000). Master Franchising/International Franchising-A Primer on Marketing and Legal Aspects. Jones L. Rev., 4, 45.
Hussain, D., Sreckovic, M., & Windsperger, J. (2018). An organizational capability perspective on multi-unit franchising. Small Business Economics, 50(4), 717-727.
Huszagh, S. M., Huszagh, F. W., & McIntyre, F. S. (1992). International franchising in the context of competitive strategy and the theory of the firm. International Marketing Review, 9(5).
Jell-Ojobor, M., & Alon, I. (2017). 17. Determinants of master international franchising. Handbook of Research on Franchising, 348.
Jell-Ojobor, M., & Windsperger, J. (2017). 16. Internationalization of franchise networks. Handbook of Research on Franchising, 317.
Jeon, Hyo Jin (Jean), Brinja Meiseberg, Rajiv P. Dant and Marko Grünhagen (2016), “Cultural Convergence in Emerging Markets: The Case of McDonald’s in China and India,” Journal of Small Business Management, 54 (2), 732-749.
Johnson, J., & Alon, I. (2006). How do international franchisors cluster?. In Service Franchising (pp. 121-138). Springer, Boston, MA.
Kacker, M. P., & McCosker, C. F. (2015). Regional Variations in Franchise Fees International Markets: A Comparative Study of Australian and US Franchise Systems. In Proceedings of the 1997 World Marketing Congress (pp. 444-448). Springer, Cham.
Kalnins, A. (2005). Overestimation and venture survival: An empirical analysis of development commitments in international master franchising ventures. Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, 14(4), 933-953.
Kedia, B. L., Ackerman, D. J., & Justis, R. T. (1995). Changing barriers to the internationalization of franchising operations: perceptions of domestic and international franchisors. Thunderbird International Business Review, 37(4), 329-348.
Konigsberg, A. S. (1991). International franchising. Juris Pub Inc.
Kretinin, A., & Morgan, T. (2017). The impact of environmental factors on international performance of multiunit franchising. In United States Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship. Conference Proceedings (p. 637). United States Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship.
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Lee, K. (2008). Issues for international franchising: lessons from the case of a Poland-based restaurant operator. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 49(4), 454-457.
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Madanoglu, M., Alon, I., & Shoham, A. (2017). Push and pull factors in international franchising. International Marketing Review, 34(1), 29-45.
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Merrilees, B. (2014). International franchising: Evolution of theory and practice. Journal of Marketing Channels, 21(3), 133-142.
Michael, S. C. (2003). Determinants of the rate of franchising among nations. MIR: management international review, 267-290.
Michael, S. C. (2014). Can franchising be an economic development strategy? An empirical investigation. Small business economics, 42(3), 611-620.
Moore, C. M., Birtwistle, G., & Burt, S. (2004). Channel power, conflict and conflict resolution in international fashion retailing. European Journal of Marketing, 38(7), 749-769.
Müller, H. J. (2015). The Internationalization of the Service Franchising Operations: Decision Making During Internationalization Process: A View in International Consulting/Training Business. pinnacle business management.
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Paik, Y., & Choi, D. Y. (2007). Control, autonomy and collaboration in the fast food industry: A comparative study between domestic and international franchising. International Small Business Journal, 25(5), 539-562.
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Pratt, J. (2015). A" Thoughtful, Useful, and Succinct Reference" on International Franchise Sales Laws. Franchise Law Journal, 35(2), 279.
Preble, J. F. (1995). Franchising systems around the globe: a status report. Journal of Small Business Management, 33(2), 80.
Preble, J. F., & Hoffman, R. C. (2006). Strategies for business format franchisors to expand into global markets. Journal of Marketing Channels, 13(3), 29-50.
Quinn, B. (1998). Towards a framework for the study of franchising as an operating mode for international retail companies. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 8(4), 445-467.
Quinn, B. (1999). Control and support in an international franchise network. International Marketing Review, 16(4/5), 345-362.
Quinn, B., & Alexander, N. (2002). International retail franchising: a conceptual framework. International journal of retail & distribution management, 30(5), 264-276.
Quinn, B., & Doherty, A. M. (2000). Power and control in international retail franchising–evidence from theory and practice. International marketing review, 17(4/5), 354-372.
Qureshi, J. A., Qureshi, M. S., & Qureshi, M. A. (2018). Mitigating Risk of Failure by Expanding Family Entrepreneurship and Learning from International Franchising Experiences of Johnny Rockets: A Case Study in Pakistan. International Journal of Experiential Learning & Case Studies, 3(1), 110-127.
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Terry, Andrew L. and Marko Grünhagen (2017), “Franchising in Southeast Asia: Prerequisites, Progress and Prospects“, In: F. Hoy, R. Perrigot and A.L. Terry (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Franchising, Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 451-481.
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Welch, L. S. (1993). Developments in international franchising. Journal of Global Marketing, 6(1-2), 81-96.
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