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Psychological Measures and Procedures: scales of mood,• mood-congruent judgment,• empathy, • meta-experience of mood, • personal intelligence emotional intelligenceintellectual experience • and experimental procedures

 
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Measures of Mood: The Brief Mood Introspection Scale (BMIS) and the Four-Mood Introspection Scale (FMIS)

Contents

  • Description of the Brief Mood Introspection Scale
  • The Scale and its translations
  • Scoring the BMIS
  • How we factor analyzed the BMIS
  • A partial list of published articles on the BMIS (through 2006)
  • The Four-Mood Introspection Scale (FMIS)

 

Description of the Brief Mood Introspection Scale (BMIS)

The BMIS scale is a freeware mood scale consisting of 16 mood-adjectives to which a person responds (e.g., Are you "happy"?). The scale can yield measures of overall pleasant-unpleasnt mood, arousal-calm mood, and it also can be scored according to positive-tired and negative-calm mood.

The authors give their permission for its general research use. Please, though, credit the original article as the source for the scale. The proper APA citation is:

Mayer, J. D., & Gaschke, Y. N. (1988). The experience and meta-experience of mood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 102-111.

Scoring instructions are available on this web page (below).

English Version

Click below for the BMIS in one of two formats (opens in new window):

BMIS--PDF

BMIS--Microsoft Word

French Version

A French translation of the BMIS (MS Word) has been prepared by Dr. Nathalie Dalle and Professor Paula Niedenthal, for which we are grateful.

At the time the translation went online (around 2004), it had been used in these publications:

Dalle, N., & Niedenthal, P.M.. (2003). La réorganisation de l'espace conceptuel au cours des états émotionnels [Reorganization of the conceptual space during emotional states]. L’Année Psychologique, 104, 585-616. PUF.

Niedenthal, P.M., & Dalle, N. (2000). Le mariage de mon meilleur ami: Emotional response categorization during naturally induced emotions. European Journal of Social Psychology, 31, 737-742.

For questions regarding the scale please contact Dr. Nathalie Dalle, Ph.D., at the University of Blaise Pascal, Department of Psychology - LAPSCO, 34 Avenue Carnot, 63037 Clermont-Ferrand, Cedex, France. Email: dalle@srvpsy.univ-bpclermont.fr

Spanish Version

A Spanish translation of the BMIS (PDF) has been prepared by Dr. Nicolas Dumay and his colleagues Eneko Antón and Margaret Gillon

For questions regarding the Spanish version scale please contact Dr. Dumay, whose website is: https://sites.google.com/site/nicolasdumay/home

How to Adjust the Reliability of BMIS

The BMIS is commonly used to measure pleasant-unpleasant mood. It uses a 4-point version of the Meddis response scale for each adjective:

XX, X, V, VV

The Pleasant-Unpleasant scale of the BMIS is sufficiently reliable for most purposes. If, however, reliability is of concern and you are planning to use one of the other three scales for which the test can be scored, you may want to consider the use of a 7-point version of the Meddis response scale. That will enhance the scale's reliability over the 4-point versions provided here. The seven point version I recommend would use the choices:

XXX XX X XV V VV VVV

Best of luck!

Scoring the BMIS

Please Note: Additional and more detailed information regadring scoring the MSCEIT can be found in this technical supplement to this page (MS Word). Also, I recommend checking the exact adjectives for each scale against the original article to guard against errors. Those can be found in Mayer & Gaschke, 1988, p. 104, second column. Please e-mail me to report any problems.

Recommended Scoring: Two Examples

Scoring the BMIS for Pleasant-Unpleasant Mood

Before you start, it is helpful to download a copy of the BMIS in PDF or WORD format (see the earlier links on this page). Now, referring to the copy, to score Pleasant-Unpleasant, first:

1. Convert the Meddis response scale (XX, X, V, VV) to numbers:

2. Next, add up the responses for: Active, Calm, Caring, Content, Happy, Lively, Loving, and Peppy.

3.. Next, reverse score the responses for: Drowsy, Fed up, Gloomy, Grouchy, Jittery, Nervous, Sad, and Tired. That is, recode, such that:

4. Now, add up the scores for the reverse scored items. That is, Drowsy, Fed up, Gloomy, Grouchy, Jittery, Nervous, Sad, and Tired.

5. Finally, add up the regular and reverse-scored items. That is the total on the Pleasant-Unpleasant scale.

Scoring the BMIS for Arousal-Calm Mood

As before, it is helpful to download a copy of the BMIS in PDF or WORD format (see the first link in this section). Now, referring to the copy, to score Arousal-Calm, first:

1. Convert the Meddis response scale to numbers this way:

2. Next, add up the responses for: Active, Caring, Fed up, Gloomy, Jittery, Lively, Loving, Nervous, Peppy, and Sad.

3. Next, reverse score the responses for: Calm and Tired. That is, recode, such that:

4. Now, add up the scores for the reverse scored items Calm and Tired.

5. Finally, add up the regular and reverse-scored items. That is the total on the Pleasant-Unpleasant scale.

A Note on Subtractive Scoring

In the original articles on the BMIS, reverse-scored items were never reverse scored, but instead were simply subtracted from regular items. That is, to calculate the Pleasant-Unpleasant dimension, for example, all the scores for the pleasant mood words were added; all the negative mood words were added, and the total score was obtained by subtracting the unpleasant total from the pleasant total. We now regard reverse scoring as the superior method for calculating BMIS scores. For more information see the technical supplement to this page (MS Word)

How We Factor Analyzed the BMIS

To reproduce the factor analyses in the way that we had done, you need to do five things:

1. Ask for principle axis factoring. That adjusts for item reliability.
2. Ask for an unrotated solution.
3. Ask for a varimax-rotated solution.
4. ...this is crucial: Limit the factors to 2. Although more factors won't matter in the unrotated case, they will change results in the rotated case.
5. Now check your results. Usually -- almost always, in fact,

Use of the Brief Mood Introspection Scale

The Brief Mood Introspection Scale appears to be used frequently in psychological research. A general sense of the usage can be drawn from the 272 citations (as of July, 2012) to the original Mayer & Gaschke article in which it was published. It is worth noting both that some of the 272 citations may have been to aspects of the article unrelated to the BMIS, which would overestimate the use the BMIS, and, that other published articles may have used the BMIS while citing alternative publications in which the BMIS was earlier used; such practices would lead to an undercount of the use of the scale.

A spot check of the citations halfway through 2012 (when this portion of the web page was last edited) indicated that for the 6 months of 2012, the Mayer & Gaschke article was cited in 14 articles. At a minimum, the first three of those 14 (the only ones checked) all used the BMIS; a number of the remaining articles likely used the scale as well judging from their titles (which often implied or directly stated that the authors were studying the measurment and/or manipulation of mood).

An Example of Three Articles Published in June/July of 2012 that Used the BMIS

Biss, Renée K. Hasher, Lynn (2012). Happy as a lark: Morning-type younger and older adults are higher in positive affect. Emotion, Vol 12(3), Jun, 2012. pp. 437-441. 

Maner, Jon K. Miller, Saul L. Moss, Justin H. Leo, Jennifer L. Plant, E. Ashby Mo (2012). Motivated social categorization: Fundamental motives enhance people's sensitivity to basic social categories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 103(1), Jul, 2012. pp. 70-83.

Jones, Andrew Cole, Jon Goudie, Andrew Field, Matt (2012). The effect of restrain beliefs on alcohol-seeking behavior. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, Vol 26(2), Jun, 2012. pp. 325-329.

Earlier Articles Employing the BMIS

Baumeister, R. F., Bratslavsky, E., Muraven, M., & Tice, D. M. (1998). Ego depletion: Is the active self a limited resource? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1252-1265.

Halberstadt, J. B., Niedenthal, P. M., & Kushner, J. (1995). Resolution of lexical ambiguity by emotional state. Psychological Science, 6, 278-282.

Hall, M., & Baum, A, (1995). Intrusive thoughts as determinants of distress in parents of children with cancer. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 25, 1215-1230.

Kokkonen, M., & Pulkkinen, L. (2001). Examination of the paths between personality, current mood, its evaluation, and emotion regulation. European Journal of Personality, 15, 83-104

Mayer, J. D., Allen, J. P., & Beauregard, K. (1995). Mood inductions for four specific moods: A procedure employing guided imagery vignettes with music. Journal of Mental Imagery, 19, 151-159.

Mayer, J. D., & Gaschke, Y. N. (1988). The experience and meta-experience of mood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 102-111.

Mayer, J. D., & Hanson, E. (1995). Mood-congruent judgment over time. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 237-244.

Mayer, J. D., McCormick, L. J., & Strong, S. E. (1995). Mood-congruent memory and natural mood: New evidence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 736-746.

Muraven, M., Tice, D. M., & Baumeister, R. F. (1998). Self-control as a limited resource: Regulatory depletion patterns. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 774-789.

Muraven, M., Collins, R. L., & Nienhaus, K. (2002). Self-control and alcohol restraint: An initial application of the self-control strength model. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 16, 113-120.

Maner, Jon K. Miller, Saul L. Moss, Justin H. Leo, Jennifer L. Plant, E. Ashby ; Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 103(1), Jul, 2012. pp. 70-83

The Four-Mood Introspection Scale

The Four-Mood Introspection Scale (PDF) (Alternate MS Word ver) is a 16-mood-adjective checklist arranged similarly to the BMIS but that measures four moods: Happiness, Anger, Fear, and Sadness. It was introduced as the criterion measure for the lab's music-imagery mood inductions and is reported in this article:

Mayer, J. D., Allen, J., & Beauregard, K. (1995). Mood inductions for four specific moods: procedure employing guided imagery vignettes with music. Journal of Mental Imagery, 19, 133-150

The scale performs quite well given its brief length.

Scoring the Four-Mood Introspection Scale (FMIS)

The response scale on the FMIS is coded XX=1, X=2, V=3 and VV=4. To score the four scales on the FMIS, for each scale, simply add together the ratings given for each of the items on the scale.

The four scales are:
Happiness: Cheerful, Happy, Lively, Joyful
Anger: Angry, Hostile, Furious, Mad
Fearful: Fearful, Nervous, Scared, Afraid
Sadness: Blue, Depressed, Unhappy, Sad

For example, on the "Happiness" scale, if a participant responsed V, X, V, and VV to Cheerful, Happy, Lively and Joyful respectively, they would receive a scores of 3+2+3+4, or 12. (There are no reverse-scored items on the scale).

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