Status of January 2000
An Iconography of the Lute
German, Austrian and Swiss 16th century
PLEASE DO NOT SEND ADDITIONAL ENTRIES. The entries published here are only the ones for which I have somewhat respectable bibliographic entries at this time. I have much more information for these and for additional entries which will be added as I get around to it. I didn't set out to compile a bibliography -- or, more properly, an iconography. This list is just what happens to be lying about the house. It is very much a work in progress, but if I waited until everything was perfect, it would never appear.
However, I would appreciate corrections -- wrong page references, for example. Send corrections to
University of New Hampshire
Durham NH 03824 (USA)
I am singularly error-prone, alas, and I am sure that there are numerous mistakes in this list. I am quit capable of looking at page 257 and writing down 277, and I seem to have difficulty telling right from left. Sorry.
The purpose of this iconography is to answer the question "Where can I find an illustration of ...?" I have included only works of art for which there is a published reproduction (plus some that are in the Visual Collection, Fine Arts Library, Harvard University and a few in the Bild-Archiv Photo Marburg).
Many thanks to John Rogers and the UHN Music Department for putting this index on their web page.
I: Old Testament
Triumph of David: [Gl St. Gallen HM] Swiss, 16th century. Triumph of David. St. Gallen, Historisches Museum. stained glass. The Wappenscheibe of Hans Sailer. Women play hurdy-gurdy (?), harp, lute (?) and one more (?). (J. Egli. Die Glasgemälde des Historischen Museums in St. Gallen, I. St. Gallen 1925. p. 8 [poor reproduction], as ca. 1540)
[Pa Wroc_aw Muzeum Sl_skie] Cranach Workshop after Lucas van Leyden, mid-16th century. Triumph of David. Wroc_aw, Muzeum Sl_skie. Women play lute and tambourine and sing. (B. Steinborn. "The Triumph of David in the Silesian Museum." Warsaw MN Bulletin 10  7. A copy of a work by Lucas van Leyden in Milan [Ambrosiana]).
[Stilhart Gl] Stilhart, Caspar (doc. 1531-m.1547), attr. Wappenscheibe of Onofrius Hürus. St. Gallen, Historisches Museum. stained glass. The Welcoming Women play harp, lute and a wind (?) instrument. (Oberrheinische Kunst I/1  pl. XVIII, Abb. 14)
Jephthah: [Amman Pr] Amman, Jost (1539-1591). The Return of Jephthah, from a Bible. woodcut. The welcoming women play harp, lute (small, partly visible), flute, a wind instrument (slightly curved, spiral outline) and triangle (with jingles). (IB vol. 20/1, no. 1.38, p.267)
[Lauenstein Pa] Lauenstein, Wawrzyniec (Lawrence) (doc. 1534). The Return of Jephthah (1534). Gdansk, Muzeum Pomorskie. Women play bowed string, harp and lute. (Z. Jakrzewska-Sniezko. Dwór artusa w Gdansku. Poznan 1972. [Seria Graficzna, 7] fig. 24)
II: New Testament
Herod, Feast of: [H S Beham Pr] Beham, Hans Sebald (1500-1550). The Feast of Herod. woodcut (printed by Albrecht Glockendon). Depicts several musical events, including a man playing a lute (there is also an open lute case) and a woman singing beside a group of diners -- cavaliers and ladies around a table out of doors in front of a rose trellis. (Geisberg-Strauss G.179-80, as ca. 1530, printed by Albrecht Glockendon from two blocks [fine reproduction]; H. Daffner. Salome ... Munich 1912. plate after p. 204; J. C. Smith. Nuremberg, a Renaissance City. Austin TX 1983. exh no. 82, p. 184, as ca. 1530-35; Oud-Holland 84  71 [detail, including the lute and lute case])
Parables -- Lazarus and the Rich Man: [Stimmer Dr] Stimmer, Tobias (1539-1584), copy by an unknown hand after a lost original. Lazarus and the Rich Man. Zürich, Antiquarische Gesellschaft. drawing (Scheibenriss). Design for the Allianzwappen of Bullinger and Keller von Steinbach. It's a hunting banquet, accompanied by musicians playing two lutes. (A. Stolberg. Tobias Stimmer. Strasbourg 1901. [SdK, 31] cat. 55, pl. XIX)
Parables -- Prodigal Son: [H S Beham Pa] Beham, Hans Sebald (1500-1550), ex attr. The Prodigal Son with the Whores (1537). private collection. A cavalier holds a lute. (Frankfurt am Main, Historisches Museum, Schriften 11  pl. 49; Vis. Coll. 373.B397.25P, as Beham)
Other: See also Allegory, Vice/Virtue (St. Christopher).
Muses: See also Allegory, Seasons; Miscellaneous Figures, Musicians.
[Sc Schallaburg Schloss] Anon. Muses (1573). Schloss Schallaburg, Grosser Arkadenhof (exterior). sculpture. One of them (Polyhymnia?) plays a lute. (R. Feuchtmüller, ed. Schloss Schallaburg. St. Polten 1974. pll. 23-25 [not very helpful])
[Pa Basel HM] Swiss? ca. 1540? Castalischer Brunn/Allegory of Music. Basel, Historisches Museum. Among the many musical ensembles, a group of well-dressed women (Muses) play several musical instruments, including a lute. (MGG IX, Taf. 60/2 [small reproduction]; Schweizerisches Jahrbuch für Musikwissenschaft 6 [1933/R 1969] frontispiece [poor reproduction, but on the facing page there is a list of the figures and the musical instruments in the painting]) Cf. the painting in Herrliberg, below.
[Pa Herrliberg] S. German (?), [ca.1540?]. Allegory of Music. Herrliberg, Seestrasse, Landgut zur "Schipf." Many musical figures, including a group of elegantly dressed women around a fountain who represent the Muses. "Terpsichore" plays a lute. (Die Kunstdenkmäler der Schweiz, 15: Kanton Zürich Landschaft II. Basel 1943. pl. 14, opp. p. 344; Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 16  fig. 21 after p. 32) Cf. the painting of the Castalischer Brunn (Basel, Historisches Museum), above.
[Po Marburg] German (Hessen), second half, 16th century. Allegorical Female Figure (Muse?). Marburg, Marburger Altertumssammlung (1925). pottery tile. She holds a treble viol/violin, and has one foot on a lute. (K. Strauss. Die Töpferkunst in Hessen. Strasbourg 1925. [SdK, 228] fig. 180, pl. XXXIV)
[Amberger Dr] Amberger, Christoph (doc.1530-m.1561/2), attr. Muse (?). London, University College Collection. drawing. A draped female figure standing beside a tree plays a lute. (Münchner Jahrbuch der bildenden Kunst 30  69)
[Brun Me] Brun, Franz (op. 1559-1590), Manner of. Polyhymnia, from a Nine Muses series. Berlin. low relief metal plaque. She plays a lute. This seems related to the one clearly labelled "Caliope" in a drawing attributed to the circle of Peter II Vischer (Paris Louvre) entered below. (The Calliope in the Brun Manner series plays a trombone.) (van Marle Iconographie. vol. II, p. 273)
[P II Vischer Dr] Vischer, Peter II (1487-1528), Circle of. Calliope. Paris Louvre, CdD. drawing. (Revue du Louvre 14  123. Notes the most eminent Muse plays the most eminent instrument. As after an engraving by the Master FB [Franz Brun] [op.1559-1590])
VI: Literary and Historical Subjects/Figures
[BI Augsburg 1531] Weiditz, Hans (ca.1495-ca.1537). Two Figures in a Walled Garden, from Cicero, Officia. Augsburg, Steiner, 1531. fol. 34v. woodcut. He plays a harp, she plays a lute. (Hirth no. 44, as by Hans Burgkmair; H. Röttinger. Hans Weiditz, der Petrarkameister. Strasbourg 1904 [SdK, 50] pl. 17; Die Weltkunst 57  444 [fine reproduction], from Cicero, Offiza, Augsburg 1532)
Ages of Man: [Master CS Pr] Master CS (op. 1548-1579). Brother Eckehart Advising all Ages of Man. woodcut. In the section illustrating Brother Eckehart and a young man, figures picnic around a table in the background. A man plays a lute and a woman may sing. (Strauss The German Single-Leaf Woodcut. vol. III, p. 1231. Based on the carnival stage plays of Georg Wickram [Bruder Eckehart] and Pamphilus Gegenbach [Bruder Nolhard] and corresponding to verses of 1564 by Hans Sachs.)
[Stimmer Pr] Stimmer, Tobias (1539-1584). "XX. Jar Kindisch," from an Ages of Man series. woodcut. The personification is an elegantly dressed youth with a falcon on his fist. There is a lute lying on the ground beside him. (Hirth no. 1374 [fine reproduction]; Strauss The German Single-Leaf Woodcut. vol. III, p. 1041 [fine reproduction])
Elements: [BI Nuremberg 1568] Jost Amman (1539-1591) after Wenzel Jamnitzer The Four Elements: Air, from Perspectiva corporum regularium. Nuremberg, Wenzel Jamnitzer, 1568. etching. Numerous musical instruments, including a lute. very unimp. for lute. (exh Münster, Baden Baden, 1979-80: Stilleben in Europa. no. 83, p. 143)
Hearing (Five Senses): See also Miscellaneous Figures, Musicians.
[organ Bristow] Anon. [16th century?] The Five Senses? Bristow, Kirche. organ figures. The one I presume is Hearing plays a lute. (S. Holtz. Kirchen auf dem Lande. Die Dorfkirchen von Mecklenburg. Berlin 1965. pl. 130 [no text])
[Ms Munich BSB Mus. Ms. A. I] Mielich, Hans (1516-1573). The Five Senses, from Orlande de Lassus, Busspsalmen. Munich BSB Mus. Ms. A, vol. I, p. 78. The border includes medallions with female figures representing the Five Senses. For Hearing there is a lute (and two flutes?) hanging on a wall. (Die Weltkunst 53  2380)
[Pencz Pr] Pencz, Georg (1500?-1550). Hearing/Auditus, from a Five Senses series. engraving. The personification is a melancholy figure surrounded by musical instruments: viola da braccio, harp, lute and (haging on the wall) a case of flutes. The symbolic animal is a wild boar. (IB vol. 16, no. 105, p. 123)
Love and Sex: [Stimmer Dr] Stimmer, Tobias (1539-1584). The Garden of Love. Bern, Historisches Museum . drawing. The Children of Venus, with bathers, diners, steward pouring wine, skittles, figure with a tennis racquet, pergola. Two figues on steps play lutes and four couples dance sedately. (A. Stolberg. Tobias Stimmer. Strasbourg 1901. [SdK, 31] cat. 35, pl. 15)
Months/Zodiac: [H S Beham Pr] Beham, Hans Sebald (1500-1550). May, from a Twelve Months series. woodcut. In a boat a man plays a lute and a woman sings. Two men (militia) play flute and drum. (Budapest SM Bulletin 11  56 [no swimmers])
[Amman Pr] Amman, Jost (1539-1591). May, from a Twelve Months series (1588). pub. Ansbach, Stefan Heimann. engraving. The personification is a dandy gentleman holding a lute in one hand and a peony in the other. The lute is associated with Venus, the peony, with Moon. (IB vol. II, no. 3.5, p.33; exh Karlsruhe, Städtische Kunstsammlung, Ferdinand Siegelsche Sammlung, 1971: Deutsche, französische und italienische Kupferstiche und Radierungen des 15. bis 18. Jahrhunderts. pl. 26)
[Amman Pr] _______. Gemini/May, from a Twelve Months series. etching/engraving (the panels, placed end to end, form a circle). Dancers are accompanied by figures playing lute and pipe and tabor. Figures around a table beneath a pergola play lute (actually, he holds it while he embraces the lady next to him) and flute. A fool prances by carrying a plucked stringed instrument. (IB vol. 20/1, no. 45, p. 39 [monogram]; Hirth no. 1323 [no monogram]; Hollstein I, p. 20 [no monogram] [miserable reproduction]. Notes that the original etchings are without the monogram, the engraved copies with the monogram.)
[Amman Pr] _______. Libra/September, as above. Figures around a cloth-covered table beneath a grape arbor include men playing a lute and a flute and a woman playing a viola. (IB vol. 20/1, no. 4.9, p. 41 [monogram])
[Amman Pr] _______. Pisces/February, as above. Carnival masqueraders play several musical instruments, including two lutes. (IB vol. 20/1, no. 42, p. 37 [monogram]; Hirth no. 1328 [no monogram])
[J II Breu Dr] Breu, Jörg II (ca. 1510-1547). May (?), from a Twelve Months series (?). New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art. drawing. Includes a musical group of men and women: a man plays a lute; a woman is in the pose of a viol player, but there is no instrument; two men play woodwinds, perhaps recorders; two women seem to sing. The bathers in the foreground suggest the Children of Venus. (Vis. Coll. 373d.B76.4F, "Fountain of Youth")
Music/Poetry/Liberal Arts: See also Mythology, Muses.
[BI Wittenberg 1545] Lucas II Cranach (1515-1586). Musica, passe-partout woodcut illustration published in the tenor partbook of Sixt Dietrich, Novum opus musicum, Wittenberg, Georg Rhau, 1545. The female personification, a well-dressed woman with a feathered hat, plays the lute, surrounded by a fiddle, harp, dulcimer (psaltery?), case of flutes and shawm or reed cornett. (MGG III, col. 449-50; Komma no. 213, p. 89) Cranach's woodcut was adapted for another passe-partout illustration by Frantz Friedrich (doc. 1550-1583). This was published as the title-page illustration for Benedictus de Drusina, Tabulatura, Frankfurt an der Oder, Joannis Eichorn [d.Ä], 1573 (MGG III, col. 1190) and was used in Mattheus Waissel, Tabulatura, with the same imprint (Strauss The German Single-Leaf Woodcut. p. 214 [miserable reproduction]). Here a treble (?) viol (or a three-string German fiddle), a harp, a case of flutes, and curved and straight cornetts hang on the grape arbor behind her. A dulcimer (psaltery?) and a trumpet lie on the ground. There is a music book on the grassy bank. Friedrich also adds a dog and a rabbit.
[Po Marburg] German (Hessen), second half, 16th century. Music, from an Liberal Arts series in the style of lead plaques of Peter Flötner (1485?-1546). Marburg, Marburger Altertumssammlung. pottery tile. The personification is a lute-playing putto. There is also an unplayed lute. (K. Strauss. Die Töpferkunst in Hessen. Strasbourg 1925. (SdK, 228) fig. 194, pl. XXXVII)
[Lucius Pr] Lucius, Jacob (ca.1530-1597). Musica, from a Seven Liberal Arts series. The personification plays a lute. There are several other unplayed musical instruments. (Strauss The German Single-Leaf Woodcut. vol. II, p. 646)
Als (?) gute Künst Gott geben hat/zu mehren sein grosse wunder that.
Ich gute Künst Gott geben hat/zu nichren sein grosse wunder that.
Darunter ich nicht bin veracht/ZuGottes lob herfürgebracht.
Musica mein rechter nam ist/Gepreiset hoch zu ieder frist.
Durch mich Gott lobt der Engel schar./Sein ehr und preis erschallet klar.
Im Himel durch den Cherubim/Mit heller stim singt Seraphim.
Der heilig David ein Prophet/Mit seiner Harffen loben thet.
Des lieben Vaters gütigkeit/In seinem Son und Geist bereit.
Die Kirche Gott zu lob und ehr/Mit freuden stim sich ubet sehr
Und dancket Gott fur sein wolthat/Die er uns alln gegeben hat.
Die weisen Heiden also meinten/Das durch mich sich gar vereinten.
Die wilden Holzleut in de Sted/Da man tugent fur augen het.
Der Himel laufft durch mich erschilt/Wie uns die Gelerten ingebilt.
Ein frölich hern ich machen thu/Bertreib all trawren vnd vnrhu.
Die Vögelin in dem Holtze fein/Mie ineiner stim erschallen rein.
[Sansdorffer Fr] Sansdorffer, Erhard (doc. 1547). Allegory of Music (1547). Büdingen, Schloss. fresco. Includes a group around a table with a woman singing and men singing and playing viola da braccio, tenor viol, lute and flute. (K. von Koenigswald. Schlösser und Schicksale. Frankfurt am Main 1970. Abb. 92 [minuscule reproduction]; U. Pfistermeister. Rund um Frankfurt, I (Südost). Nuremberg 1969. (Verborgene Kostbarkeiten, 9) p. 25; MgB III/9, p. )
[Solis Pr] Solis, Virgil (1514-1562). Music, from a Liberal Arts series. engraving. The personification plays a lute. Not played: portative organ, harp, recorder (partly visible, she has her foot on it), trombone. (IB vol. 19/1, no. 187, p. 92)
Planets: See also Allegory, Love and Sex.
[Ms Nuremberg GNM] Anon., 16th century. The Children of Venus with the Alchemical Peacock, from Salomon Trismosin, Splendor solis. Nuremburg GNM. In the foreground women sing (two) and play a viol. Men play viol and lute. In the background four couples dance accompanied by a bagpiper. Much is copied from the Pencz Children of Venus, but the lute player is copied from the Meckenem Couple Playing Harp and Lute (H. 505). (J. van Lennep. Art et alchemie. Brussels 1966. fig. 38 [poor reproduction]; A. P. de Mirimonde. Alchemie et musique. Geneva 1977. pl. 51a, p. 99 [fine color reproduction]) There are other versions in Paris Louvre, attr. Workshop of Albrecht Glockendon, ca. 1532-35; and London BL Ms Eg. 1246 (Early Music 6  38 [small reproduction]).
[Pencz Pr] Pencz, Georg (1500?-1550), attr. The Children of Sun, from a Seven Planets series (1531). woodcut. Includes, on a balcony of a castle, a man playing a lute and a man and a woman singing (from a huge music sheet). The singing woman is one of only two women among the numerous figures. (Hollstein [German] XXXI, no. 92, p. 192 [ok reproduction]; Geisberg-Strauss G. 993 [fine reproduction]; Hirth no. 288 [fine reproduction], as by Hans Sebald Beham; van Marle Iconographie, vol. I, p. 298 [ok reproduction]; H. Zschelletzschky. Die "Drei gottlosen Maler" von Nürnberg ... Leipzig 1975. p. 158)
[Pencz Pr] _______. The Children of Venus. In the foreground, at the left, men sing and play harp and cornett and a woman sings. At the right, a man plays a tenor violin (da gamba) and a woman plays a lute. There is an open lute case nearby on the ground. (Hollstein [German] XXXI, no. 93, p. 194 [ok reproduction]; Geisberg-Strauss no. 994 [fine reproduction]; Hirth no. 294 [fine reproduction], as by Hans Sebald Beham; Mirimonde Astrologie. p. 131, as by Hans Sebald Beham; J. C. Smith. Nuremberg, a Renaissance City. Austin TX 1983. exh no. 103, p. 205; Zschelletzschky p. 160; MgB III/9, p. 124 [detail of foreground group])
[Schöffer Pr] Schöffer, Hector (op. 1533-1551), pubr. "Tafel zu erlernen der Planeten stundt ..." woodcut. The Children of Venus are represented by a couple at a table, the woman playing a lute, the man, a recorder. (Strauss The German Single-Leaf Woodcut. vol.III, p. 924)
[Solis Pr] Solis, Virgil (1514-1562). "Vennus"/The Children of Venus. woodcut. One of the figures, a woman, plays a lute. (IB vol. 19/1, no. 167, p. 82; Mirimonde Astrologie. p. 74)
Seasons: [Amman Dr] Amman, Jost (1539-1591). "Svmer"/Summer (1565) (from a Four Seasons series). Braunschweig, Herzog-Anton-Ulrich Museum. drawing. With the icons for Taurus, Gemini and Cancer -- April, May and June -- and presided over by Ceres. Two women sing and two men play lute (back view, sitting on his lute case -- it must have been sturdy) and flute. (MgB III/9, p. 120)
[Amman-Jenichen Pr] Balthasar Jenichen (op. 1560-1590) after Jost Amman. Spring (1569), from a Four Seasons series. etching. A woman sings and men play lute and cornett. (Hirth no. 1068; Hollstein [German] I, p. 57)
[Pencz Dr] Pencz, Georg (1500?-1550). Spring, from a Four Seasons series. Erlangen, Graphische Sammlung der Universitätsbibliothek, no. 289. drawing (Scheibenriss). A figure plays a viola da braccio and there are an unplayed harp and lute. (E. Bock, ed. Die Zeichnungen in der Universitätsbibliothek Erlangen. Frankfurt am Main 1929. no. 289)
[Solis Pr] Solis, Virgil (1514-1562). Triumphal Procession of Spring, from a Four Seasons series. engraving. There is a trophy of crossed harp and lute on the triumphal wagon. (IB vol. 19/1, nos. 133 and 133A on p. 67, nos. 133B and 133C on p. 68)
Temperaments: [Gerung Pa] Gerung, Matthias (ca.1500-ca.1550), attr. Melancholia
(1558). Karlsruhe, Staatliche Kunsthalle. painting. Melancholy presides over an allegorical panorama of sixteenth-century German life. Much of the imagery is drawn from the imagery of the Children of the Planets. Dancers are accompanied by bagpipe and shawm; diners are accompanied by a man playing a lute and a lady playing a harp (and one more?). These are probably the Children of Venus. There is also a tournament accompanied by trumpets and kettledrums. (Trau sale, Gilhofer and Ranschburg, Wien, 26-30.IV.1937 [poor illustration]; K. Klibansky, E. Panofsky and F. Saxl. Saturn and Melancholy. New York 1964. illus. 123, and cites O. Doering and G. Voss. Meisterwerke der Kunst aus Sachsen und Thüringen. Magdeburg n.d. pl. 35; Gazette des Beaux-Arts 69  **p. not recorded [detail with diners and musicians]; Gazette des Beaux-Arts 90 (March 1977) Le cahier des arts no. 1305, p. 9 [minuscule reproduction])
[Solis Pr] Solis, Virgil (1514-1562). "Sangvinevs -1"/Sanguineus the First Temperament, from a Four Temperaments series. engraving. The personification holds a lute and points to a music book in tablature notation. Solis includes also the head of a horse. The lute probably refers to Venus and the horse to Jupiter, the governors of the Temperament. (IB vol. 19/1, no. 178 [horse at the left] and no. 187-A [horse at the right], p. 88; K. Klibansky, E. Panofsky and F. Saxl. Saturn and Melancholy. New York 1964. illus. 119; I. O'Dell-Franke. Kupferstiche und Radierungen aus der Werkstatt des Virgil Solis. Wiesbaden 1977. no. e67)
Vanitas: [Ta ex Figdor] N. Swiss, 1565. A Woman and Two Suitors (1565). location unknown. tapestry. There is a lute on the table. Based on a woodcut by Urs Graf: "Bede[n]k das end, das ist mein rot;/Wan[n] alle ding beschlüszt den todt." (Göbel III/1, pl. 164a; Sammlung Dr. Albert Figdor, Wien, I [sale catalog]. Vienna 1930, pl. IV. As Swiss or Alsatian, 1559) Cf. late-15th/early 16th century section: [Graf Pr].
Vice/Virtue: [BI Basel 1572] Anon. Voluptas, from Sebastian Brant, Stultifera Navis. Basel 1572. A figure holds a harp and there is an unplayed lute leaning against a table. (E. Panofsky. Hercules am Scheidewege ... Berlin 1930. pl. 25, Abb. 44)
[J II Breu Pr] Breu, Jörg II (ca. 1511-1547), attr. St. Christopher. woodcut. Includes two elegant couples on the bank of a raging river, about to be swept away by a flood of water. One couple embraces, the other sings (the woman) and plays a lute (the man). A man beside them may also sing. Note that the angel playing the trumpet is in the "Heavenly Jerusalem" (upper left) position in the composition, and that the lute player and singer(s) are in the "Hell mouth" (lower right) position. (Hollstein [German] IV, no. 16, p. 193; Geisberg-Strauss no. 1464, as ca.1545, as by Heinrich II Vogtherr [1513-1568])
[Kandel Pr] Kandel, David (op. ca. 1546-1587). "Tabvla Cebetis" (1547). woodcut. In the Garden of False Learning men (militia) play flute and drum. More elegant figures (after Georg Pencz's Children of Venus) sing and play tenor fiddle (da gamba) and harp (men) and sing and play lute (women). Cf. Hans II Holbein's passe-partout title page for the Basel printer H. Froben. (Hollstein [German] XVB, no. 6, p. 223; Strauss The German Single-Leaf Woodcut. vol. II, p. 470 [ok reproduction], as The Road to Virtue, probably based on a design by [Hans II] Holbein) There is a French 16th-century embroidered hanging based on this (New York Metropolitan). (exh Jacksonville, Fl, Cummer Gallery of Art, 1964: French Art of the Sixteenth Century. no. 15, as N. French, 1550-1600; Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin [April 1943] 245 [ok reproduction]. Here the tenor fiddle resembles a small cello.)
Other: [Pa Linz OÖLM] Anon., 1538. Country Pleasures. Linz OÖLM. Many musical ensembles, including one (after Pencz's Children of Venus) of a man playing a cello/viol and a woman playing a lute. The central group, around a table, is after Hans Sebald Beham's Feast of Herod. (W. Salmen. Bilder zur Geschichte der Musik in Österreich. Innsbruck 1979. p. 50)
[Pencz Pr] Pencz, Georg (1500?-1550). "Patrtez nanme wssych ni nyny ..."/The Nobody. woodcut. Includes a mass of unplayed objects (mostly household items), including a lute (three strings). (Geisberg-Strauss no. 1008, as ca. 1535)
[Stimmer Pr] Stimmer, Tobias (1539-1584). Border for a Portrait of Melchior Neusidler. Aetatis Svae XXXXIII/Melchior Neusidler, Aged FortyThree. woodcut. Includes an allegorical female figure holding a goblet and a lute. In the protrait Neusidler holds a lute (only head and a bit of the neck visible). (Strauss The German Single-Leaf Woodcut. vol. III, no. 17, p. 1004; MGG IX, col. 1407 [the portrait only, no border]; The New Grove, vol. 13, p. 157 [small reproduction, the portrait only], as from Neusidler's Lautenbuch. Strasbourg, B. Jobin, 1574)
Lautenschlagen du edle Kunst/
Erfröwest ss Hertz vnd machest gunst
Lute-playing, you noble art
You gain favors and gladden the heart (Strauss)
VIII: Emblems and Proverbs
[BI Augsburg 1531] Anon. "Foedera," from Andrea Alciati, Emblema. Augsburg 1531. no. 10. woodcut. A lute and an open music book are lying on a canopied bed. (Goya. Revista de arte 184 [Jan.-Feb. 1985] 89 [ok reproduction])
[BI Augsburg 1531] After Jörg Breu. "Foedera Italorum," from Andreas Alciatus, Viri clarissimi. Augsburg, Heinrich Steyner, 1531 (Latin); Frankfurt am Main, Jeremias Held, 1567 (German). woodcut. An emblem of alliance, harmony. Includes a very large lute on the floor of a small room. (A. Henkel and A. Schöne. Emblemata ... Stuttgart 1967. cols. 1297-98)
See also Miscellaneous Figures, Putti.
See also Allegory, Other.
[BI Heidelberg 1558] Anon. Portrait of Sebastian Ochsenkun, from his Tabulaturbuch. Heidelberg, J. Khol, 1558. woodcut. He plays a lute, and there is another lute (partly visible) hanging on the wall. (Kinsky p. 132; MGG IX, col. 1825)
XI: Still Life
[Stör Dr] Stör, Lorenz (op. 1550-1570). Still Life of Musical Instruments and Books. Cologne WRM. drawing. Includes a lute among the numerous musical instruments. (exh Cologne WRM, 1965: Handzeichnungen des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts ... no. 22)
XII: Decorative Elements
[BI Nuremberg 1532] Anon. Title-page border of Hans Gerle, Musica Teusch. Nuremberg, Hieronymus Formschneider, 1532. woodcut border blocks (one dated 1530). Includes three trophies of crossed lute and viol, a single lute flanked by Gerle's monogram, and putti playing lute and viol. (MGG IV, col. 562)
[BI Wittenberg 1538] Anon. Decorative border for the Discantvs part of Georg Rhau, Symphoniae ivcvndae. Wittenberg, Georg Rhau, 1538. woodcut. Presumably a passe-partout border. Several musical instruments, including a lute. (Fraenkel no. 7 [ok reproduction])
[Amman Pr] Amman, Jost (1539-1591), attr. Border for a Portrait of Robertvs R. F. XXXVII (Robert I), from the series Effigies Regum Francorum. engraving and etching. Includes two musical trophies, one with a lute and a partly visibled stringed instrument (psaltery?), the other with a viol, case for/of flutes and a curvy horn (partly visible, rusticated bell). (IB vol. 21/1, no. 10.15, p. 147)
[Amman Pr] _______. Border for a Portrait of Loys Rex Francor XXXXVII (Louis X), as above. Includes two musical trophies, one with portative organ (partly visible), a harp-like instrument (very partly visible), lute and straight trumpet; the other with viola da braccio (fretted neck), harp, shawm and kettledrum (and perhaps more). (IB vol. 20/1, no. 10.25, p. 152)
XIII: Scenes of Everyday Life -- Outdoor
Baths: [Pa Munich BNM] German, 1531. Painted table top showing the Inn and the Isar to the Donau (1531). Munich BNM (ex Schloss Zellerreit bei Wasserburg in Bayern). One of the border scenes shows a bath, with musicians sitting on the edge of the bath (not together) playing small (tenor?) viol (right handed) and lute (left handed). (W. Rüdiger. Die Welt der Renaissance. Munich 1970. p. 257 [color reproduction]; MgB III/9, Abb. 52 [fair reproduction])
Boating Parties: [Automaton Vienna KH] S. German, 16th century. Figures in a Gondola. Vienna KH. automaton. Includes a woman playing a lute. unimp. (N. Dufourcq, ed. La musique: Les hommes, les instruments, les oeuvres. Paris 1965. vol. I, p. 191)
Garden Parties: See also Allegory, Love and Sex.
[Amman Pr] Amman, Jost (1539-1591). Music Party. woodcut. Figures around a table, with men playing lute and flute (and paying no attention to one another). (Hirth no. 1120 [fine reproduction]; Strauss The German Single-Leaf Woodcut. vol. I, no. 33, p. 66 [fine reproduction])
[Amman Pr] _______. Scene of Courtly Life. woodcut. Includes a man playing a lute (and a woman who may sing). There are also two couples dancing to the accompaniment of flute and pipe and tabor. (Hirth no. 1067; Hollstein [German] I, p. 18]
[Mielich Pa] Mielich, Hans (1516-1573). Outdoor Banquet. Hartford, Wadsworth Atheneum. Musicians in the foreground include two women playing lutes. With the arms of Albert V of Bavaria above the banqueters. (Musica calendar 1985: 16-29 June [fine color detail of the foreground ensembles]; Connoisseur 123  112 [poor reproduction]; 1978 catalog, no. 99, pp. 165-7)
Processions/Cavalcades/Entrees/Parades: [CI Dresden 1574] Daniel Bretschneider after Friedrich Bercht. Musicians from the Procession to the Ring-Race for Carnival, Shrove Tuesday, at the Court of Elector August of Saxony, Dresden, 23 March 1574, from Contrafactur des Ringkrennens ... Dresden 1582. engraving. One group plays violin/viola da braccio, cittern and lute. (Bowles Musical Ensembles. fig. 35)
[CI Dresden 1574] _______. A Group of Musicians Dressed as Wild Men and Women. One of them (a man) plays a lute. (Bowles Musical Ensembles. fig. 34)
[CI Dresden 1574] _______. A Group of Five "Women." Three of them play citterns and two of them play lutes (? -- with long narrow necks, rather like citterns with lute heads). (Bowles Musical Ensembles. fig. 31)
[CI Munich 1568] Anon.? Procession of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria to the Tournament on the Marienplatz, Munich, on the Occasion of the Wedding of Duke Wilhelm V with Princess Renata of Lorraine, 21 February 1568 , from Hainrich Wirre (Heinrich Wirrich), Ordentlich Beschreybung der Fürstlichen Hochzeyt ... Augsburg 1568. woodcut. Masked figures on a procession wagon play a treble and two tenor violas, lute and a plucked stringed instrument (viol body, lute head -- the text calls it a cittern). (Schönes altes München. Munich 1965. pp. 208-209; (Bowles Musical Ensembles. fig. 28 [reversed, to show the instruments correctly])
Street Scenes: [BI Strasbourg 1549] Anon.? Street Serenade, from Sebastian Brant, Der Narren Spiegel. Strasbourg, Wendel Rihel, 1549. woodcut. Men playing lute and flute serenade below a lady's window (who rewards them with a bucket of slop). (R. M. Haas. Aufführungspraxis der Musik. Potsdam 1931, R/1949. p. 122; Early Music 7  413 [small reproduction]) National Union Catalog. Pre-1956 Imprints, vol. 72, p. 635: "one of numerous unauthentic, grossly mutilated editions."
[Dr location unknown] German (Königsberg), 1550. Students Serenading, from the Stammbuch of the Burggraf Achatius zu Dohna (1550). location unknown (destroyed?). Stammbuch illustration. Two students sing and two students play lutes to two women in the windows of a house. (MgB III/9, Abb. 99; Cf. C. Krollmann. "Das älteste preussische Stammbuch," in: Alt-preussische Beiträge. Königsberg 1933)
[Dr location unknown] _______. Students Larking in a Stolen Cart. One of the students plays a lute. Very crude drawing. (MgB III/9, p. 146)
[Pr Anon.] Anon., second half, 16th century. Title woodcut from a songsheet: Ein Schöner Bremberger/Wach auff hertz lieb/auss deinem schlaff dass bitt ich dich. woodcut. A man playing a lute serenades beneath a lady's window. Very crude illustration. (MgB III/9, Abb. 58 [ok reproduction])
[Amman Pr] Amman, Jost (1539-1591). Nocturnal Serenade. woodcut (oval). Well-dressed figures serenading with a little violin (three strings), lute, plucked stringed instrument (three strings) and flute -- and getting doused with a chamber pot for their efforts. (Strauss The German Single-Leaf Woodcut. vol. I, p. 67 [fine reproduction])
XIV: Scenes of Everyday Life -- Indoor
Music Lessons: [Dr Erlangen] Anon, 1579. Organist and Musicians/"Pavlvs Lavtensack/Anno 1579." Erlangen, Graphische Sammlung der Universitätsbibliothek, Sign. B 534. drawing. There are an organist, a cornett player (straight cornett) and a boy singer. Hanging on the wall: two viols, a lute and a case of flutes. Paul III Lautensack (m. 1598) was an organist at St. Sebald in Nuremberg from 1571. (E. Bock, ed. Die Zeichnungen in der Universitätsbibliothek Erlangen. Frankfurt am Main 1929. [ok reproduction]; MgB III/9, Abb. 137 [ok reproduction]; MGG XVI, Taf. 66 [ok reproduction])
XV: Miscellaneous Figures
Angels: [Pa private collection] German, 16th century. Nativity. private collection. Angels play rebec and lute. Two others sing. (Vis. Coll. 373.G316.22N[a])
[Aldegrever Pa] Aldegrever, Heinrich (1502-1558?). Nativity. Soest, St. Maria zur Wiese. Angels around the Christ Child play fiddle, tiny harp and lute. Angels above sing from a huge music sheet. (Soest in seinen Denkmälern, IV/3 [Bilderband III]. Soest 1968. p. 270; Vis. Coll. 373.Al 25.19[a]1)
[Amberger Pa] Amberger, Christoph (doc.1530-m.1561/2). Virgin and Child with SS Ulrich and Afra (1554). Augsburg, Dom, Wolfgangskapelle. Angels play harp (right) and lute (left). (T. Breuer. Augsburg. Munich 1966. (Deutsche Land/Deutsche Kunst) pl. 19. As a 1554 reconstruction of a destroyed 1537 altarpiece of Hans I Holbein; Münchner Jahrbuch der bildenden Kunst 30  45; Vis. Coll. 373.Am19.34[a])
[Amman Pr] Amman, Jost (1539-1591). Four Ornamental Panels. woodcut. One of the panels depicts musical angels, including one playing a lute. (Strauss The German Single-Leaf Woodcut. vol. I, p. 68 [fine reproduction])
[Roelofsz Pa] Roelofsz, Ernst (doc. 1563), attr. Nativity (1563). ex Kranenburg, kath. Pfarrkirche (destroyed in WW II). Angels above play lute and lyre (?). Die Denkmäler des Rheinlands. Kr. Kleve, 5: Kranenburg-Zyfflich. Düsseldorf 1970. Abb. 21 [poor reproduction])
[Soest Wsc] Soest, Albert von (doc.1563-1567). Angels. Lüneburg, Rathaus, Sitzungszimmer. wood carving. Angels, two each, left and right, play lute and straight trumpet. The central illustration is The Continence of Scipio. (W. Behncke. Albert von Soest. Strasbourg 1901. [SdK, 28] pl. VII)
[Stimmer Pr] Stimmer, Tobias (1539-1584). "Eygentliche Fürbildung und Beschreibung dess newer künstlichen Astronomischen Uhrwercks zu Strassburg imm Münster." woodcut. Angels at the top play harp and lute. very unimp. (D. Alexander. The German Single-Leaf Woodcut, 1600-1700. New York 1977. vol. II, p. 548)
[Woensam Pa] Woensam, Anton (doc. 1517/18-m.by 1541). Death and Coronation of the Virgin. Cologne WRM. Several musical angels, including one playing a lute (with fiddle and woodwind [recorder?]). (O. Förster. Das Wallraf-Richartz-Museum in Köln. Cologne 1961. vol. I, pl. 85; Wallraf-Richartz-Jahrbuch 23  378 [useless reproduction])
Comedians: See also Musicians
Demons/Devils: [Sc Halberstadt Dom] Anon. Epitaph for Frederick, Archbishop of Magdeburg (1552). Halberstadt, Dom. sculpture. Includes a devil playing a lute. (K. Meyer-Baer. Music of the Spheres. Princeton 1970. p. 5)
[Gerung Pr] Gerung, Matthias (ca.1500-1569). Christ Preaching; The Sultan and the Pope Dragging Infidels and Catholics into the Fire of Hell. woodcut. Demons play fiddle (left handed) and lute (right handed). Both instruments have fanciful heads. (Strauss Single-Leaf Woodcut. vol. I, no. 59, p. 314)
Fools: [Brun Pr] Brun, Franz (op. 1559-1590). Fool, from a series of Fools. engraving. One dances to his lute. (Hollstein [German] V, nos. 92-95, p. 15)
Musicians (amateur and professional): See also Allegory, Music.
[Sc Innsbruck Herzog-Friedrich-Strasse 16]. Anon. (Neo-Gothic reworking of 1862 [after 16th-century models?]). sculpture. A trio of cavaliers plays tenor viol, lute and cylindrical woodwind (flute, recorder or cornett). (H. Hammer. Kunstgeschichte der Stadt Innsbruck. Innsbruck 1952. p. 61)
[Gl Muri Kloster] Anon. A Gentleman and a Lady (1566?). Muri, Kloster, Kreuzgang, Fenster W V. stained glass. The gentleman plays a harp (?) and the lady plays a lute. They are contrasted with pairs of dancing peasants accompanied by bagpipe and shawm. (Die Kunstdenkmäler der Schweiz, 55: Kanton Aargau V. Basel 1967. p. 379. The text with the date 1566 seems to refer to the wrong window.)
[Ms Munich BSB Mus. Ms. A. II] Mielich, Hans (1516-1573). The Bavarian Hofkapelle under Orlande de Lassus, from Orlande de Lassus, Busspsalmen. Munich BSB Mus. Ms. A, vol. II, fol. 187. One of the numerous musicians plays a lute (partly visible). The room depicted is the St. Georgssaal of the Neue Veste, which burned down in 1750. (R. M. Haas. Aufführungspraxis der Musik. Potsdam 1931, R/1949. Taf. VIII; Komma no. 231; Pincherle p. 60 [ok reproduction]; MgB III/9, Abb. 106 [ok color reproduction]; MGG VII, Taf. 11 [ok color reproduction]; Early Music 9  341 [small reproduction]; Musica calendar 1982: 3-16 October [ok color reproduction])
[BI Munich 1573] Anon. after Johann Nel. Title page vignette from Orlande de Lassus, Patrocinium musices ... Prima pars. Munich, Adam Berg, 1573. woodcut. Numerous musicians, including one playing a lute. A passe-partout illustration. There are two versions. In one (A), the line of the table top bisects the left center bouts (incurving) of the bass viol; in the other (B, a copy), the center bouts are completely below the table top. (Dufourcq Musique vol. I, p. 189 [A]; Fraenkel no. 44 [A]; R. M. Haas. Aufführungspraxis der Musik. Potsdam 1931, R/1949. p. 140 [A]; MGG I, col. 789-90 [A]; MGG VIII, col. 274 [A]; Mg B III/9, p. 158 [A, detail]; T. L. Naylor. The Trumpet and Trombone in Graphic Arts 1500-1800. [Nashville] 1979. nos. 67, 68 [detail] [A, title page of Lassus, Missae aliqvot qvinqvbe vocvm. Munich, A. Berg, 1589]; Fraenkel no. 45 [B, title page of Lassus, Psalmi Davidis poenitentiales. Munich, A. Berg, 1584]; MGG I, col. 1679-80 [poor reproduction] [B, title page of G. G. da Immola, Sdegnosi ardori. Munich, A. Berg. 1585]; MGG IX, cols. 137-38 [fair reproduction] [B, title page of Jacob Regnart, Teutsche Lieder. Munich, A. Berg, 1583])
[BI Nuremberg 1575] Anon. Title page of Elias Nikolaus Ammerbach, Ein New Kunstlich Tabulaturbuch. Nuremberg, Dietrich Gerlach (printed by Johannes Beyer), 1575. woodcut. Numerous musicians, including one playing a lute. (Fraenkel no. 47; MGG I, Taf. XVII; The New Grove VII, p. 270 [small reproduction])
[automat Vienna KH] S. German, 16th century. Figures in a Gondola. Vienna KH. automat. A woman plays a lute. (N. Dufourcq, ed. La musique: Les hommes, les instruments, les oeuvres. Paris 1965. vol. I, p. 191)
[Fr Goldegg Schloss] Anon, 1536. Musician. Goldegg, Schloss, Rittersaal. fresco. He holds both a lute and a flute. It looks a bit odd. Do you suppose it has been re-worked from a pipe and tabor player? (R. Hootz. Kunstdenkmäler in Oesterreich ... I: Salzburg - Tirol - Vorarlberg. Munich, Berlin 1965. p. 39; W. Salmen. Bilder zur Geschichte der Musik in Österreich. Innsbruck 1979. p. 41; W. Salmen. Der Spielmann im Mittelalter. Innsbruck 1983. Abb. 38; Alte und moderne Kunst 21/H.147  19 [small reproduction, sort of in situ]
[Gl Darmstadt HLM] German (Cologne), ca. 1530-40. Aristocratic Couple in a Landscape. Darmstadt HLM. fragment of a stained-glass roundel. The woman plays a lute (left-handed). (1967 catalog: Glasmalerei. no. 201)
[Gl Zürich SLM] Swiss, 1552. Wappenscheibe of Jacob Feys (1552). Zürich SLM. stained glass. Includes a courtly scene across the top with a woman playing a lute. Crudely painted. unimp. (Schneider Glasgemälde. vol. I, no. 259)
[Me Florence Museo degli Argenti] S. German [16th century?]. Comedians in a Gondola. Florence, Museo degli Argenti. jewelled pendant. Comedians play guitar and lute. (E. Steingräber, ed. Royal Treasures. New York 1968. p. 15 [small color reproduction])
[Me Florence Museo degli Argenti] S. German [16th century]. Men in a Gondola. Florence, Museo degli Argenti. jewelled pendant. The men play two (? -- the second instrument unclear) lutes. (E. Steingräber, ed. Royal Treasures. New York 1968. p. 15 [color reproduction])
[Po Angermümde] German (Mark Brandenburg), first half, 16th century. Two Figures. Angermünde, Verein für Heimatkunde. tile fragment (relief). One of the figures has a lute. (K. Straus. Kacheln und Öfen der Mark Brandenburg. Strasbourg 1926. (SdK, 239). pl. V/21 [tiny reproduction])
[Po Cologne Kunstgewerbe] German (Cologne), second quarter, 16th century. Two Figures. Cologne, Kunstgewerbe Museum. pottery plate. A man plays a lute and a youth plays a recorder. (1971 catalog: Steinzeug. Ed. G. Reineking-von Bock. no. 313)
[Pr Anon.] Anon. (1543). Der Pfeyffer/Die Lautenschlagerin -- Soldier and Lute Player. pub. Augsburg, Anthony Formschneyder. woodcut. The soldier plays a flute/fife and the lady (a prostitute/camp follower in feathered hat and striped skirt) plays a lute. (Geisberg-Strauss G.1588)
[sgraffito Vicosoprano] Swiss (1577). Young Gentleman Playing a Lute. Vicosoprano, house exterior. exterior sgrafitto. Tablature on the table in front of him. His dog listens. (C. Simonett. Die Bauernhäuser des Kantons Graubünden, II. Basel 1968. p. 116; Die Kunstdenkmäler der Schweiz, 14: Kanton Graubünden, V. Basel 1943. p. 469)
[textile location unknown] Anon., 1562 or 1568. Tablecloth for the Wedding of a Graf von Henneberg. location unknown. silk-embroidered with gold and silver threads. Many elegant musical figures, one of whom (a lady) plays a lute. (drawing after it in R. Haas. Aufführungspraxis der Musik. Potsdam 1931, R/1949. Taf. IX, after C. Decher and J. von Hefner. Kunstwerke und Gerätschaften des Mittelalters und der Renaissance. Frankfurt am Main 1852. l. Bd. 7.45)
[Wsc Cambridge Busch-Reisinger] S. German or Swiss, third quarter, 16th century. "Leuchterweibchen." Cambridge MA, Harvard University, Busch-Reisinger Museum. polychromed wood chandelier. She plays a lute. Antlers=Stag=Hearing? (C. L. Kuhn. German and Netherlandish Sculpture in the Harvard Collections. Cambridge MA 1965. cat. no. 39, pl. XXXVII)
[Aldegrever Pr] Aldegrever, Heinrich (1502-1558?). Two Musicians, from Die kleine Hochzeitstänzer (I) series (1538). woodcut. They're a rather tough-looking pair playing three-string fiddle/viola da braccio and lute. There are also seven separate prints of well-dressed couples dancing. (IB vol. 16, no. 144, p. 203, nos. 145-151 [the dancers], pp. 203-204; Hirth no. 919 [nos. 919-925, with dancers]; Hollstein [German] I, p. 68; Kinsky p. 80)
[Aldegrever Pr] _______. A Pair of Lovers (1537). engraving. Two figures in a garden. He embraces her and holds a lute. She holds a dog. (IB vol. 16, no. 172, p. 213; Hollstein [German] I, p. 73 [poor reproduction]; H. Zschelletzschky. Das graphische Werk Heinrich Aldegrevers. Strasbourg 1933. (SdK, 292). pl. III [useless reproduction])
[Amman Pr] Amman, Jost (1539-1591). Cavalier Serenading a Lady, from his Kartenspielbuch (1588). woodcut. He plays a lute. There is a large dog beside him. The lady seems rather disreputable. (exh Münster, Baden-Baden 1979/80: Stilleben in Europa. p. 451 [not exhibited])
[Amman Pr] _______. Der Lautenmacher, from Eygentliche Beschreibung aller Stände auff Erden ... (1568). woodcut. He plays a lute. A tenor (?) viol and a lute (unfinished, no pegs) hang on the wall behind him and there is a lute corpus on his workbench. (Hirth no. 1259; Kinsky p. 130/1; Pincherle p. 40 [fine reproduction, reversed], as ca. 1570; MgB III/9, Abb. 88)
[Amman Pr] _______. "Harpffen und Lauten," as above. Musicians play harp (he has his foot on a lute case), lute and trombone/slide trumpet. (D. Altenburg. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der Trompete im Zeitalter der Clarinblaskunst [1500-1800]. Regensburg 1973 [Kölner Beiträge zur Musikforschung, 75] vol. III, Abb. 12; Hirth no. 1262; T. L. Naylor. The Trumpet and Trombone in Graphic Arts 1500-1800. [Nashville] 1979. no. 54) Note German, 19th century Becherglas with Schwarzlotmalerei. Bremen art market. Must set some sort of a record for late use of an Amman woodcut. (Die Weltkunst 15  2844)
[Amman Dr] _______. Family Tree of the Pfinzing Family. Nuremberg GNM. drawing. They are a lively lot. A woman plays a lute. There is a man dancing to his lute, and a duo of lute and singer. On the fourth line from the bottom there is a row of figures playing violin, double bass, harp, lute, flute, pipe and tabor, shawm, and one more. (Anzeiger des Germanischen Nationalmuseums 1968. p. 177)
[H S Beham Pr] Beham, Hans Sebald (1500-1550). Musicians, from Gassenhawer vnd Reutterliedlin. woodcut. One group consists of players of fiddle, cello or small double bass and two lutes. (G. Pauli. Hans Sebald Beham. Nachträge ... Strasbourg 1911 [SdK, 134] pl. VI [small, fuzzy reproduction])
[Binck Dr] Binck, Jacob (ca.1500-1569). Figures around a table. Amsterdam art market (1922). drawing. Men play viola da braccio (across chest), double bass and lute. Crude sketch. unimp. (sale, De Vries, Amsterdam, 24-25.I.22) (Witt)
[Böck Me] Böck, Abraham (doc. 1567-1596). Musicians, Fool, and a Dining Couple. private collection. engraved tin "Humpen." Musicians play cello (right handed) and lute (left handed). (exh Innsbruck TLF, 1960: Edelzinn aus der Sammlung Dr. Karl Ruhmann. cat. no. 124, Abb. 78-79)
[Master A.S.Dr] Master A.S. (doc. 1530). Lovers beside a Fountain in a Landscape (1530). Munich Sgs. drawing. A man (with an enormous feathered hat) playing a lute serenades his lady. I suppose she may sing (she has a word sheet on her lap). (Old Master Drawings [December 1931] 56 [ok reproduction])
[Master HM Pr] Master HM (doc. 1543). Three Musicians (1543). engraving. One sings (with a part book) and the others play pochette/kit and lute. Two partbooks, apparently for the two instrumentalists, rest on the lute case. (Kinsky p. 81 [minuscule reproduction])
[Solis Dr] Solis, Virgil (1514-1562). Sheet of Studies. Vienna art market (1889). drawing. Includes a pair serenading diners and playing lute and flute. (Klinkosch sale, Wawra, Vienna, 1889) (witt)
[Stilhart Gl] Stilhart, Caspar (doc. 1531-m.1547). Wappenscheibe of Hans Sailer. St. Gallen, Historisches Museum. stained glass. Includes four groups of musicians: three curved woodwinds (crumhorns?); three singers; an ensemble of harp, lute and one more (?); and three flutes (militia?). (Oberrheinische Kunst I/1  pl. XV, Abb. 9)
[Stimmer Pr] Stimmer, Tobias (1539-1584). Lute Player, from a series of Lady Musicians. woodcut. (Strauss The German Single-Leaf Woodcut. vol. III, no. 1025 [fine reproduction]; Hirth no. 1079 [fine reproduction]; Bulletin of the New York Public Library 64 no. 1 [January 1960] 15, with English translation of the caption text, pp. 14-15)
Putti: See also Allegory, Music; Decorative Elements.
[Sc Celle Schlosskapelle] Anon., 1565. Frieze of Musical Putti Alternating with Biblical Figures. Celle, Schlosskapelle. sculpture. One of the putti plays a small lute. (V. C. Habicht. Celle und Weinhausen. Berlin 1930. [Deutsche Lande, deutsche Kunst] pp. 13-14 [rather comprehensive distant views]; O. Karpa. Celle und Kloster Weinhausen. Munich 1953. [Deutsche Lande, deutsche Kunst] pl. 9 [of St. Thomas flanked by putti singing and playing a lute])
[organ Bregenz] Anon. Organ Figures. Bregenz VLM. organ figure. Putti play lute and corno torto. Two angels play straight trumpets (with finger holes and played like a tabor pipe -- not confidence inspiring). (W. Salmen. Bilder zur Geschichte der Musik in Österreich. Innsbruck 1979. pl. 48)
[BI Strasbourg 1574] Stimmer, Tobias (1539-1584) attr. Passe-partout title page border of the Strasbourg printer Bernhart Jobin, appearing on the title page of Melchior Neusidler, Teutsch Lautenbuch. Strasbourg, Bernhart Jobin, 1574. woodcut, in four blocks. Putti in the corners play viol, guitar, harp and lute (partly visible, back view). Apollo plays a lyre and Bacchus plays a recorder. (Fraenkel no. 49 [ok reproduction]) The border also appears in Das Erste Buch Newerlessener ... Schöner Lautenstück (1572) (Kinsky p. 134, no. 1 [poor reproduction]); Bernhard Schmid's Einer Neuen kunstlichen Tabulatur auff Orgel vnd Instrument (1577) (Kinsky p. 83, no. 1); G. C. Barbetta. Novae Tabvulae musicae (1577) (by now the blocks seem a bit fuzzy and Bacchus is at the left and Apollo on the right, looking out of the frame)
[Dr Coburg Veste] German, 16th century. Heraldic Design. Coburg, Kunstsammlung Veste. drawing. putti play fiddle, lute and recorder (?). (Vis. Coll. 373.G316.95[g])
[Amman Pr] Amman, Jost (1539-1591). The Figure and Arms of a Herr Reich von Reichenstein. Munich [SgS?]. drawing (Scheibenriss). A putto at the upper left plays a drum. Putti at the upper right play lute, flute (?) and one more musical instrument. unimp. (P. L. Ganz. Die Basler Glasmaler der Spätrenaissance und der Barockzeit. Basel 1966. Abb. 30)
[Lang Gl] Lang, Hieronymus (1541-1582). Wappenscheibe of Fürst von Sulz (1555): Vanité with Venus and Amor. Basel, Historisches Museum. stained glass. In the bottom corners putti play viola da braccio (left) and lute (right). (Mirimonde Astrologie. pl. 125; Gazette des Beaux-Arts 69  331)
[Nosseni Sc] Nosseni, Giovanni Maria (1544-1620), after. Putti. Freiberg, Dom, Fürstengruft. stucco figures. One plays a lute. (J. Baum. German Cathedrals. London 1956. fig. 139 [fine reproduction of the whole]; E. Löffler. Die Stadtkirchen in Sachsen. Berlin 1973. p. 148 [fine color reproduction of the whole]; H. Magirius. Der Freiberger Dom .... Weimar 1972. p. 266 [ok color reproduction of the whole, a bit more in situ than the Löffler])
[Nosseni Sc] _______. Putti. Lauenstein, Kirche. sandstone baptismal font. Putti around the base play musical instruments, including a lute. In fragmentary condition. unimp. (drawing after of the side showing putti playing bass viol and lute: Beschreibende Darstellung der älteren Bau- und Kunstdenkmäler des Königreichs Sachsen, II: Dippoldiswalde. Dresden 1883. p. 55)
[Renner Me] Renner, Johannes (doc. 1556-1611). Putti (1582). Fischingen, ehem. Klosterkirche, Sacristy. monstrance. Putti around the base play rebecs (? da gamba) and lutes. (A. Knoepfli. Kunstgeschichte des Bodenseeraumes. Konstanz 1961. figs. 141-42)
[Solis Dr] Solis, Virgin (1514-1562). Putto with a Lute and a Dog (1558). Berlin KsK. drawing. unimp. (E. Bock. Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. Die deutschen Meister. Berlin 1921. vol. II, no. 987, p. 115 [nice reproduction])
[Solis Dr] Solis, Virgin (1514-1562) (after Dürer). Two Putti. Nuremberg GNM. drawing. The putti play lute and woodwind. (1968 catalog: Deutsche Handzeichnungen, I. Ed. F. Zink. no. 115, p. 145. Notes that the lute-playing putto is from Dürer's Holy Family  and the woodwind-playing putto is from his Virgin with Angels .)
[Stimmer Pr] Stimmer, Tobias (1539-1584). Border for a Portrait of Stephan Brechtl. woodcut. Putti in the lower corners play viol and lute (both back views). unimp. (Strauss The German Single-Leaf Woodcut. vol. III, no. 19, p. 1006)
XVI: Treatise/Tutor Illustrations
[BI Zürich 1550] Anon. Lute diagram from R. Wyssenbach. Tablatura uff di Lutten. Zürich 1550. (Early Music 3  109; Early Music 9  33 [cropped, to show the design of the rose])