Status of September, 1999
Musical Instruments in Western European Art
An Iconographical Guide
The Tambourine -- 16th Century
PLEASE DO NOT SEND ADDITIONAL ENTRIES. The entries published here are only the ones for which I have somewhat respectable bibliographic entries at this time. I have much more information for these and for additional entries which will be added as I get around to it. I didn't set out to compile a bibliography -- or, more properly, an iconography. This list is just what happens to be lying about the house. It is very much a work in progress, but if I waited until everything was perfect, it would never appear.
However, I would appreciate corrections -- wrong page references, for example. Send corrections to
University of New Hampshire
Durham NH 03824 (USA)
I am singularly error-prone, alas, and I am sure that there are numerous mistakes in this list. Sorry.
I thought that I had been careful to distinguish between tambourines (with heads) and jingle rings (open hoops), but it is clear that I was not. Thus, all jingle rings are jingle rings (that much I got right), but some tambourines will turn out to be jingle rings as well. Sorry. Eventually I'll get it straightened out.
The purpose of this iconography is to answer the question "Where can I find an illustration of ...?" I have included only works of art for which there is a published reproduction (plus some that are in the Visual Collection, Fine Arts Library, Harvard University and a few in the Bild-Archiv Photo Marburg).
Many thanks to John Rogers and the UHN Music Department for putting this index on their web page.
[GB] BRITISH ARTISTS -- 16th CENTURY
[BI London 1579] Anon. Title page of William Daman, The Psalmes of David in English Meter. London, John Daye, 1579. woodcut. One of the Nine Muses plays a tambourine (vague in the jingle area). David takes the place of Apollo. (Fraenkel no. 55 [fine reproduction])
[NL] DUTCH ARTISTS -- 16th CENTURY
[B] FLEMISH ARTISTS -- 16th CENTURY
I: Old Testament
Triumph of David: [Coecke van Aelst Dr] Coecke van Aelst, Pieter (1502-1550. The Triumph of David/Return of David with the Head of Goliath. London BM 1853-10-8-15. drawing. One of the Welcoming Women plays a tambourine. (1932 catalog: Dutch and Flemish Artists, V, pl. VI [small, unhelpful reproduction]; Vis. Coll. 374d.Ae44.19[a])
II: New Testament
Herod, Feast of: [Wsc Hemelveerdegem] Flemish, 16th century. Salome's Dance. Hemelveerdegem. wood sculpture. Salome dances with a tambourine and a musician plays a pipe and tabor. (G. Peeters. The Manifold Splendour [of Belgian Art]. Brussels 1967. fig. 135)
Parables -- Wise and Foolish Virgins: [Passe-Vos Pr] Crispijn II de Passe (1597-1670) after Maarten de Vos (1532-1605). The Parable of the Wise and Foolish Virgins: The Foolish Virgins. engraving. The Foolish Virgins play clavichord (?), lute and dance to a jingle ring (B/B). (Hollstein [Dutch] XV, no. 126, p. 142; van Dijck-Koopman no. 28 [small reproduction]; Kinsky p. 117 [poor reproduction]) Also wood engraving by Christoffel van Sichem (1577-1658), from 't schat der zielen. Amsterdam, Pieter I P(aets), 1648, p. 266. (Hollstein 52; van Dijck-Koopman 1987, no. 66)
Muses: [M de Vos Pa] Vos, Maarten de (1532-1605). Apollo and the Muses. Brussels MRBA. painting on the inside of the lid of a virginal. One of the Muses plays a tambourine (JJ). (N. Dufourcq, ed. La Musique: Les hommes, les instruments, les oeuvres. Paris 1965. vol. I, pp. 150-151; van Dijck-Koopman no. 27; Musica calendar 1962: 3-16 June [fine reproduction]; Gazette des Beaux-Arts 63  140 [ok reproduction], 141 [the whole virginal]; Vis. Coll. 374.1.V921.4A) Copied on a cembalo cum octave spinet of Johannes Ruckers (Antwerp 1619) in Brussels, Musée Instrumental du Conservatoire no. 2935. (MGG VII, Taf. 45; van Dijck-Koopman no. 85)
Folly: [P I Brueghel Pr] Brueghel, Pieter I (1525/30-1569). The Feast of Fools/Aux quatre vents. engraving. The fools' dance band includes a fool with a jingle ring. (Lavalleye pl. 55 [fine reproduction]; K. P. F. Moxey. "Pieter Brueghel and The Feast of Fools." Art Bulletin 64  640-646, this reproduced p. 641 [ok reproduction])
Triumph/Victory: [Ta location unknown] Flemish (Brussels, cartoon after Giulio Romano), second half, 16th century. tapestry. Hamburg art market (1923). The Triumph of Scipio (the "Large Scipio"). Includes musicians in very animated poses, one of whom plays a tambourine. (Göbel I/2, no. 78)
XV: Miscellaneous Figures
Costume/Character Series: [Massys Pr] Massys, Cornelis (ca. 1508-p.1584). Pairs of Crippled Beggars Dancing. engraving. A man has a mandora on his back and a woman waves a jingle ring (J/J). unimp. (Hollstein [Dutch] XI, no. 149, p. 203)
[F] FRENCH ARTISTS -- 16th CENTURY
Muses: [Pa Aix-en-Provence Granet] French (School of Fontainebleau), 16th century. Apollo and the Muses. Aix-en-Provence, Musée Granet. One of the Muses plays a tambourine. Probably after the engraving by Giorgio Ghisi after Luca Penni (see below). (Gazette des Beaux-Arts 63 135 [poor reproduction])
[Courteys En] Courteys, Pierre (ca.1520-ca.1586). Apollo and the Muses. Paris Louvre. enamel platter. One of the Muses has a tambourine. Probably after the engraving by Giorgio Ghisi after Luca Penni (see below). (N. Dufourcq, ed. La musique: Les hommes, les instruments, les oeuvres. Paris 1965. vol. I, pp. 78-79 [across page crease])
Music/Poetry/Liberal Arts: [Ta Paris MN] French (Gobelins), 16th century. Musique de la gauche. Paris, Mobilier National. tapestry. Figures play lyres and cymbals. There is a pile of unplayed musical instruments, including a tambourine. very unimp. (Art Bulletin 46  fig. 16 after p. 154 [tiny reproduction]) The ultimate source of the composition is the left half of Giulio Romano's The Dance (Mantua, Palazzo del Te, Loggia della Grotta), but that does not include the pile of musical instruments. The cartoon, by Jean-Baptiste Corneille, is in the Musée de Grenoble (Art Bulletin 46  fig. 21 after p. 154 [poor reproduction])
[DACH ] GERMAN ARTISTS -- 16th CENTURY
I: Old Testament
Triumph of David: [Cranach Workshop Pa] Cranach Workshop after Lucas van Leyden, mid-16th century. Triumph of David. Wroc_aw, Muzeum Sl_skie. Women play lute and tambourine and sing. (B. Steinborn. "The Triumph of David in the Silesian Museum." Warsaw MN Bulletin 10  7. A copy of a work by Lucas van Leyden in Milan [Ambrosiana]).
Bacchanales: [H Hopfer Pr] Hopfer, Hieronymus (ca.1528-1550). Dancing Satyrs and Bacchantes. woodcut. Incudes a bacchante with a jingle ring and a tambourine (one in each hand). (Musica calendar, 1977: 4-17 September [fine reproduction])
Music/Poetry/Liberal Arts: [Pa Basel HM] Swiss? ca. 1540. The Castalian Spring. Basel, Historisches Museum. A panorama of musical figures and ensembles, most in 16th-century costume, including a woman beside the spring playing a tambourine. (MGG IX, Taf. 60/2 [fair reproduction])
[EP] IBERIAN ARTISTS -- 16th CENTURY
XIII: Scenes of Everyday Life -- Outdoor
Street Scenes: [BI Valencia 1555] "Villete de Amoz." Valencia, Juan Timoneda, 1555. woodcut. Street musicians play guitar and tambourine. The tambourine player is a bearded man. (J. C. Lozoya. Historia de arte hispánico, III. Barcelona 1940. p. 365)
Views: [BI Cologne ca.1572-1618] Braun, Georg, and Frans Hogenberg (fl. 1558-90). Cádiz, from Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg, Civitates orbis terrarum. Cologne ca. 1572-1618. hand-colored print. Peasants in the foreground clap, dance, and play a tambourine. (Imago Musicae 13  57 [fair reproduction])
XV: Miscellaneous Figures
Angels (more than four musical angels): [Pa Madrid Prado] Anon., ca. 1570. Angel Musicians. Madrid Prado, no. 2686. painted panels of a wooden door, one angel per panel. One of the angels has a tambourine. (F. Sopeña and A. Gallego. La musica en el museo del Prado. Madrid 1972. p. 89 [fine color reproduction] , details on unnumbered pages between pp. 90 and 91)
[Correa de Vivar Pa] Correa de Vivar, Juan (op. mid-16th century). Adoration of the Shepherds. Madrid Prado. Six small angels play musical angels, including a tiny tambourine (in the group with rebec and lute). unimp. (F. Sopeña and A. Gallego. La musica en el museo del Prado. Madrid 1972. pp. 86-87 [splendid color reproduction]; Vis. Coll. 376.C817.19[b]5)
Costume/Character Series: [Vico Pr] Vico, Enea (1523-1567). Young Woman of Santander Playing a Tambourine, from a series of the costumes of Spain. engraving. The tambourine is large (J/J). (IB vol. 30, no. 138, p. 104)
[I] ITALIAN ARTISTS -- 16th CENTURY
I: Old Testament
David Dancing Before the Ark: [Pa Rome Caetani] Anon., second half, 16th century. David Before the Ark. Rome, Palazzo Caetani. David has a harp. The musicians preceding him play shawm (?), fanciful brass, and tambourine. (C. Dumont. Francesco Salviati au Palais Sacchetti de Rome ... Rome 1973. fig. 200 [minuscule reproduction])
Triumph of David: [D Campagnola Dr] Campagnola, Domenico (op. 1517-1562). Triumph of David. Berlin, Staatliche Museen, Kupferstichkabinett. drawing. The Welcoming Women play generic woodwind (recorder?) and twoÖtambourines (B/B). (Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 19  335)
[Palma Giovane Pa] Palma Giovane (1544-1628). Triumph of David. Madrid Prado. One of the welcoming women has two tambourines. Others have lute and triangle. (A. E. Perez Sanchez. Pintura italiana del S. XVII en España. Madrid 1965. pl. 242)
Miriam/Crossing the Red Sea: [Figino Pa] Figino, Giovanni Ambrogio (1548?-1608). The Crossing of the Red Sea. Milan, Cathedral. painting on the shutter of the south organ of the choir. Two of the numerous Rejoicing Women play tambourines. (CR Milan, 1969: Il Duomo di Milano. ed. M. L. Gatti Perer. p. 223, as 1590-95; Art Bulletin 47  fig. 1 after p. 36 [small reproduction], as ca. 1590-1594)
III: Miscellaneous Religious Subjects
Virgin and Child: [Lanino Pa] Lanino, Bernardino (ca.1510-1583). Sacra conversazione (1552). Raleigh NC, North Carolina Museum of Art (Kress K.1570). A putto plays a cello. Not played: lute, recorder and tambourine (BB/slot or jingle but no jingle) (with roses on it). Roses are undoubtedly an indication of the connection with the Dominican confraternity of the rosary. The saints are all Dominican. (F. R. Shapley. Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection: Italian Schools XV-XVI Centuries. London 1968. fig. 360 [ok reproduction]; Winternitz Musical Instruments. pl. 39b [detail]; MGG XIII, Taf. 87 [fine detal]; Vis. Coll. 372.L272.34[a])
St. Cecliia: [Filippi Pa] Filippi, Sebastiano (Il Bastianino) (ca.1532-1602). St. Cecilia. Ferrara, Pinacoteca Nazionale. St. Cecilia has a portative organ; young angels play viola da braccio (?), harp and cornett, and there is a tambourine among the several unplayed instruments. (V. Scherliess. Musikalische Noten auf Kunstwerken der italienischen Renaissance ...Hamburg 1972. cat. no. V, Abb. 22)
[Tibaldi Pa] Tibaldi, Pellegrino (1527-1596), attr. St. Cecilia. Vienna KH. St. Cecilia sings. Angels play harp and lute. Not played: violin, lute, recorder (under the tambourine) and small tambourine (can't tell if tambourine or jingle ring, probably tambourine) (JJ). (A. P. de Mirimonde. Sainte Cécile ou les métamorphoses d'un thème musical. Geneva 1974. pl. 98; Imago musicale 1  95, as by Antiveduto Grammatica?)
St. Jerome: See also Miscellaneous Figures, Musicians.
[Pa Venice S Francesco della Vigna] Anon., 16th century? Predella with scenes from the life of St. Jerome. Venice, Chiesa di S. Francesco della Vigna, altar of the Capella Giustiniani. The scenes are divided by panels with female musicians (the temptresses of St. Jerome?) playing fiddle, rebec, little lute and tambourine. (E. Arslan, ed. Arte e artisti dei Laghi Lombardi, I. Como [195?]. figs. 108-110 [small reproductions])
[Vasari Pa] Vasari, Giorgio (1511-1571), attr. The Temptation of St. Jerome. London art market (1953). Includes a putto waving what looks like a jingle ring (JB/BJ) hung from a turned wooden handle. (Burlington 95 [December 1953) Notable Works pl. VIII [ok reproduction])
Apollo and Pan/Marsyas: [Fantuzzi-Parmigianino Pr] Fantuzzi, Antonio (ca.1508-p.1550) after Parmigianino (Francesco Mazzuoli) (1503-1540). The Contest Between Apollo and Pan. engraving. Apollo plays a sort of viola da braccio and there is a lyre on the ground beside him. Pan, a satyr, holds his panpipes and there is a tambourine(J/B) on the ground beside him. (IB vol. 33, no. 8, p. 228, as The Contest Between Marsyas and Apollo) Marsyas was not a satyr.
Muses: [Ghisi-Penni Pr] Giorgio Ghisi after Luca Penni (1500/94-1556). Apollo and the Muses. engraving. One of the Muses plays a tambourine (JJ/BB). (IB vol. 31, no. 58, p. 124; no. 58-Copy A, p. 125; no. 58-Copy B [by Gasparo ab Avibus (Osello)], p. 126; Kinsky p. 112 [fair reproduction]; Gazette des Beaux-Arts 63  135; Imago musicae 13  86, [= IB no. 58-Copy B?] as by Jacopo Caraglio after Giovanni Battista Rosso, as "Wettstreit der Musen und Pieriden"/Contest of the Muses and the Pierides). The easiest way to tell the various copies apart is to look at the bells and jingles on the tambourine.
Other: S [Vico Pr] Vico, Enea (op. 1541-1567). The Nine Daughters of Pierus (Ovid V, esp. 662-678). engraving. One plays a tambourine (JJ). unimp. (IB vol. 30, no. 29, p. 42?) This is the Pierides group from the Caraglio-Rosso Fiorentino The Pierides Challenge the Muses (listed in the late-15th -- early 16th century section -- IB vol. 28, no. 53, p. 192, reversed).
Fortuna: [Pr Anon.] Anon., 16th century? "Arboro di frvtti della fortvna." engraving. There are several musical instruments among the many objects hanging in the Tree of the Fruits of Fortune, including what appears to be a jingle ring (vaguely depicted). (Burlington 115  212)
Geographical: [Vasari Pa] Vasari, Giorgio (1511-1574). Ingrandimento di Firenze/The Expansion of Florence. Florence, Palazzo Vecchio. With a number of musicians, including a tambourine player. (P. Bargellini. Scoperta di Palazzo Vecchio. Florence 1968. p. 61)
Love and Sex: [Veronese Pa] Veronese, Paolo (ca. 1528-1588). Juno and Apollo. formerly Berlin, Kaiser Friedrich-Museum (destroyed in 1945). Juno holds a tambourine (jingle flanked by pairs of pellet bells?). (T. Pignatti. Veronese. Venice 1976. cat. no. 210, fig. 518, as late 1570's; Burlington 116  29, as The Sphere of Love). A version, by Veronese and an assistant: private collection. (Burlington 116  29)
XII: Decorative Elements
[Ms Venice Correr] Anon., 1543 Trophies in the margin of a Commissione of Doge Pietro Lando to Paolo Bragadin, 1543. Venice, Museo Correr. illuminated state document. The trophies include shawms, racks of "majolica flutes" and tambourines. (Bolletino dei musei civici Venezian 1972/1, p. 19)
[Po London V&A] Italian (Venetian, attr. Workshop of Domenico da Venezia), 1557. Border decoration (central figure is a nude boy). London V & A. majolica plate. The decoration inculdes a lute, three pairs of flutes, a frame drum and a tambourine. (1940 catalog: Italian majolica. no. 975, pl. 157 [tiny reproduction])
XIII: Scenes of Everyday Life -- Outdoor
Street Scenes: [Pr Anon.] Anon., by 1563. Serenade Beneath a Lady's Window. passe-partout woodcut. Young men (students?) in a street play harp, lute, woodwind (recorder?) and tambourine (vaguely depicted). (R. Mortimer. Harvard College Library. Dept. of Prints and Graphic Arts. Italian 16th century Books. Cambridge 1974. no. 468, p. 649. From Scongivrazione amorosa dvn giovane innamorato. Florence, Zanobi Bisticci, 1600. Mortimer (p. 649) notes that by this time the block is cut down and worn. Suggests this may be the block recorded by Kristeller [Florentine Woodcuts (London 1897) no. 83] in a 1563 Canzone a ballo composte da diversi autori. The block is probably much earlier than 1563.)
XV: Miscellaneous Figures
Angels (four musical angels): [Farinati Fr] Farinati, Paolo (1524-1606). Coronation of SS Nazaro and Celso. Verona, S. Nazaro. fresco. Angels play bass viol, lyre, corno torto and tambourine. (F. dal Forno. Paolo Farinati. Verona 1965. pl. 10)
[Lanino Pa] Lanino, Bernardino (ca.1510-1583). Assumption of the Virgin (1543). Biella, Chiesa di S. Sebastiano. Angels play violin, harp, lute and tambourine. (exh Turin, Palazzo Carignano,1939: Gotica e Rinascimento in Piemonte. Ed. V. Vialo. pl. 158 [poor reproduction])
[Lanino Fr] _______. Angels. Vercelli, Museo Leone (formerly Chiesa di S. Domenico). fresco. Angels in the interstices of the vault play renaissance fiddle (violin body, flat head), harp, shawm (?) and tambourine. (G. Marangoni. Vercelli. Bergamo 1931. [Italia artistica, 107] p. 75, depicts four musical angels. I suppose there may be more.). Tambourine pose similar to G. Ferrari, Virgin and Child, Vercelli, Museo Borgogna)
[Muziano Dr] Muziano, Gerolamo (Il Brescianino) (1528-1592). Coronation of the Virgin. Florence, Uffizi. drawing. Angels play viola da gamba, harp, cornett and tambourine. (Vis. Coll. 372d.M985.31C)
[Riccardi Pa?] Riccardi, Gabriele (called Bei Licciardo) (doc. 1549). Nativity (1588). Torre Santa Susanna, S. Maria di Gàlaso. Angels above play a viol (?), lute, curved horn and tambourine. unimp. (C. Calvesi and M. Manieri-Elia. Architettura barocca a Lecce e in terra di Puglia. Milan 1971. fig. 17, 19)
[Sabbatini Pa] Sabbatini, Lorenzo (ca. 1530-1576). Virgin and Child in Glory. private collection (ex S. M. della Monte, Bologna). Angels play bass viol, harp, woodwind and tambourine. (Burlington 111  260 [poor reproduction]; Vis. Coll. 372.Sa12.31As)
Angels (more than four musical angels): [Fr Selva di Cadore] Anon., second quarter, 16th century. Angels. Selva di Cadore, S. Lorenzo, choir. fresco. Among the many musical angels in the interstices of the vault, one plays a tambourine. Restored in 1911-12 and seems not well done. (G. Dalla Vestra. I pittori bellunesi prima dei Vecellio. Verona 1975, figs 161, 162. Suggests a venetian artist from the Veneto, perhaps contemporaneous with Giovanni da Mel [op. 1521-1548].)
[Cambiaso Fr] Cambiaso, Luca (1527-1585). The Glory of the Trinity. El Escorial, Monastery Church. fresco. A huge angel concert, including one angel playing a tambourine. (Marques de Lozoya. The Escorial ... New York 1967. p. 37 [ok reproduction]; El Escorial... Madrid 1967. figs. 115 and 116; B. Suida Manning and W. Suida. Luca Cambiaso ... Milan 1957. pll. CCLV and CCLVI, fig. 439-440; Vis. Coll. 372.C142.39T)
[D Campagnola Dr] Campagnola, Domenico (op. 1517-1562). The Meeting of Joachim and Anna, with the Virgin in Glory Above. London BM. drawing. Six musical angels, including one playing a tambourine. unimp. (Vis. Coll. 372d.C151.38J)
[Criscuolo Pa] Criscuolo, Giovanni Filippo (ca. 1500-ca.1584), attr. Death and Assumption of the Virgin (1534). Fondi, S. Maria Assunta. Numerous musical angels, including one playing a tambourine. (exh Gaeta, Palazzo De Vio, 1976: Arte a Gaeta, dipinti dal XII al XVIII secolo. no. 31, p. 81 [fair reproduction])
[Ghisi Pr] Ghisi, Giorgio (1520-1582). The Martyrdom of St. Barbara. engraving. Numerous musical angels above, including one playing a tambourine. (IB vol. 31, no. 10, p. 42)
[Persio-Sannazaro Wsc] Persio, A. and Sannazaro. Nativity (1534). Matera, Cathedral. carved wooden creche. Includes six musical angels, one of whom has a tambourine. (R. Berliner. Der Weihnachtskrippe. Munich 1955. pll. 6, 7 and 9; U. Bosco et al. Basilicata. Milan 1964. pl. XCIII [color reproduction], as by A. Persio)
Children: [D Campagnola Pr] Campagnola, Domenico (op. 1517-1562). Twelve Children Dancing. engraving. Two of the dancing children play tambourines (B/B) festooned with leafy branches. (Hind Early Italian Engraving no. 12,I, pl. 795; no. 12,II, pl. 795)
Musicians: See also Saints, St. Jerome.
[Veronese Fr] Veronese, Paolo (ca. 1528-1588). A Woman Playing aÖTambourine. Maser, Villa Barbaro. fresco. (T. Pignatti. Veronese. Venice 1976. cat. no. 97, fig. 222 (in sitù, fig. 226, as 1560-62; Art Bulletin 74  223 [fair reproduction])
Putti (one musical putto): See also Saints, St. Jerome.
Putti (two musical putti): See also Children.
[J Bassano Pa] Jacopo Bassano (ca.1510/18-1592). Virgin and Child with SS Zeno and John the Baptist (1538). Borso del Grappa, Parrocchiale. Two putti, above, play a tiny straight trumpet and a tambourine. (Arte veneta 11  94)
[D Campagnola Pr] Campagnola, Domenico (op. 1517-1562). Adoration of the Magi. woodcut (2 blocks). Putti play one-hand woodwind (?) and tambourine (vague). unimp. (Washington DC, National Gallery of Art, exhibit of new acquisitions, 1974, no. 87, p. 136-37 [fine reproduction], as ca.1517-1518) Note similarity of the tambourine with the one in Francesco Vecellio (1475-ca.1560), Virgin and Child (Berlin).
[D Campagnola Dr] _______. Virgin and Child in Glory. London BM. drawing. Putti play shawm (?) and tambourine. unimp. (Arte veneta 33  44)
[Lanino Pa] Lanino, Bernardino (ca.1510-1583). Sacra conversazione. Valduggia, S. Giorgio. Putti in front play lute (more hugging than playing) and tambourine. (G. Marangoni. Vercelli. Bergamo 1931. [Italia artistica, 107] p. 115 "pannello principale del polittico di Valduggia")
Putti (three musical putti): [D Campagnola Pa] Campagnola, Domenico (op. 1517-1562). Baptism of Christ. Padua, Chiesa del Seminario. Putti, above, play violin (sort of), woodwind and tambourine (B/B -- large bells). (Inventario degli oggetti d'arte d'Italia, VII: Provincia di Padova. Rome 1936. p. 168) Campagnola puts tambourines in just about everything.
[Lanino Pa] Lanino, Bernardino (ca.1510-1583). La madonna della grazia (1561). Vercelli, Chiesa di S. Paolo. Three putti in front all more hug than play their instruments: lute, plucked string (a sort of psaltery-lyre) and tambourine (BB alternating with a jingle slot but no jingle). (A. M. Brizio. Catalogo delle cose d'arte e di antichità d'Italia: Vercelli. Rome 1935. p. 133 [useless reproduction]; G. Marangoni. Vercelli. Bergamo 1931. [Italia artistica, 107] p. 61, 62 [useful detail]; S. Weber. Gaudenzio Ferrari und seine Schule. Strasbourg 1927. pl. XIV)
Putti (four musical putti): [D Campagnola Fr] Campagnola, Domenico (op. 1517-1562). Ascension of Christ. Padua, Chiesa del Convento de Praglia. fresco. Putti play lyre, panpipes (?), recorder (held) and tambourine. unimp. (L. Grossato. Affreschi del cinquecento in Padova. Milan 1966. fig. 121, pp. 186-87)
Putti (more than four musical putti): [Antonio da Bologna Pa] Antonio da Bologna (op. ca. 1550). Assumption of the Virgin. Monte Oliveto Maggiore, S. Scholastica. Among the many musical angels and putti, a putto plays a tambourine (BB/JJ). (Vis. Coll. 372.An894f.31As3)