7 ½’ quadrangle: Benham, KY
Private land, posted (see waiver information below)
4,145 ft (1,263m)
Siltstone, shale, coal and sandstone - - typical Coal Age cyclothems - - lie within the Cumberland Overthrust sheet, carried westward above the Pine Mountain thrust fault during the Alleghenian Orogeny. To the east in Virginia this thrust sheet was folded, but it is much less deformed in Kentucky, so that strata on Black Mountain are nearly horizontal.
The Hignite Formation includes interbedded olive- to medium-gray and almost black siltstone and shale, with lenticular light to dark gray micaceous sandstone and at least nine coal beds, chief of which are the 4.5-foot thick High Splint bed, 3-foot thick Morris bed and 3-foot thick Cornett bed. Much of the High Splint coal, which lies at an elevation around 3800 feet under Black Mountain, had been removed by underground mining by 1970. The bedrock map shows the summit area as "artificial fill".
Parts of Black Mountain were threatened by mountaintop removal methods until December 31, 1999, when the state of Kentucky bought timber and mineral rights to the summit. However, because the mountain is an actively mined area, and still owned by a coal company, hikers must receive permission to visit the summit. The owners "are concerned about being held liable if one of the coal mine tunnels under the summit should collapse". The following web page provides up-to-date information on the necessary waiver: http://americasroof.com/ky-release.html
Surficial Geology: Beyond the reach of Pleistocene glaciation
Soil Series: Kimper silt loam: deep, well drained, sloping, very dark grayish-brown silt loam, with yellow-brown channery silt loam at depth, derived from siltstone.
- Childress, J. Daniel, 1992, Soil Survey of Bell and Harlan Counties, Kentucky: United States Soil Conservation Service.
- Froelich, Albert J. and Byron D. Stone, 1973, Geologic Map of Parts of the Benham and Appalachia Quadrangle, Harlan and Letcher Counties, Kentucky: USGS Geological Quadrangle Map GQ- 1059, 1:24,000.
Other suggested sources of information: