Emotional Intelligence Information: RETURN TO MAIN MENU

Laboratory Publications on Emotional Intelligence*

*A complete list of laboratory publications is available at www.unh.edu/personalitylab


Publications on EI:


Update October 21st, 2013. I used to be able to provide PDFs at this site but owing to uncertain copyright law, I removed them. After that, I had redirected my links to the PDFs being offered through the Health Education and Behavior lab at Yale University. However, that Yale site has now been taken down. So, finding a comprehensive list of reprints has become a bit more challenging. Here are some suggestons...

You can find a few PDFs of recent articles at the "selected reprints section" of UNH's Personality Lab

and a few others at the "Publications" section of the Yale Center for Emotional Intelligence

You are likely to be able find still others by searching with Google scholar

You can also consult your local library or e-mail the personality lab for reprints. Meanwhile, the often-annotated list of publications below may help you narrow your search and find more exactly what you are looking for.

PART 1: 1990-1999
Mayer, J. D., DiPaolo, M. T., & Salovey, P. (1990). Perceiving affective content in ambiguous visual stimuli: A component of emotional intelligence. Journal of Personality Assessment, 54, 772-781. A first demonstration study of how emotional intelligence can be measured.

Salovey, P. & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 9, 185-211. A first formal theory of emotional intelligence, and a review of then-exisitng literature that might pertain to it.

Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1993). The intelligence of emotional intelligence. Intelligence , 17 (4), 433-442. An editiorial in the journal, Intelligence, further elaborating our early ideas concerning emotional intelligence, and arguing for its study.

Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1995). Emotional intelligence and the construction and regulation of feelings. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 4, 197-208. An article outlining the "educated, understanding" portion of emotional intelligence. This article provided the key underpinnings for the "Understanding Emotions" portion of our theory.

Salovey, P., Mayer, J. D., Goldman, S., Turvey, C, & Palfai, T. (1995). Emotional attention, clarity, and repair: Exploring emotional intelligence using the Trait Meta-Mood Scale. In J. W. Pennebaker (Ed.), Emotion, disclosure, and health (pp. 125-154). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. Meta-experience is the reflective experience one has about one's ongoing moods and emotions. This link takes you to the Cognition and Affect section of this web site, where you can access the reprint (towards the bottom).

Mayer, J. D., & Geher, G. (1996). Emotional intelligence and the identification of emotion. Intelligence, 22, 89-113. A second demonstration study concerning the measure of emotional intelligence. This empirical work examined multiple scoring procedures for emotional intelligence, attempting to compare potential criteria for what a correct answer in the domain would be like.

Mayer, J. D. & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey & D. Sluyter (Eds). Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Implications for educators (pp. 3-31). New York: Basic Books. This paper provides the original presentation of the four-branch model of emotional intelligence and discusses it. This remains the major restatement of our 1990 theory, and represents our current model of emotional intelligence.

Mayer, J. D., & Mitchell, D. C. (1998). Intelligence as a subsystem of personality: From Spearman's g to contemporary models of hot-processing. In W. Tomic & J. Kingma (Eds). Advances in cognition and educational practice (Volume 5: Conceptual issues in research in intelligence) (pp. 43-75). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Although not directly focused on EI, this chapter reviews a number of theories of intelligence, with particular attention to "hot intelligences" -- e.g., those dealing with emotions and other personal conerns -- and it informed our newer models of intelligence.

Mayer, J. D. & Beltz, C. M. (1998). Socialization, society’s “emotional contract,” and emotional intelligence. Psychological Inquiry, 9, 300-303.
Mayer, J. D. (September, 1999). Emotional Intelligence: Popular or scientific psychology? APA Monitor, 30, 50. [Shared Perspectives column] Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. By 1999, the popularizations of emotional intelligence in the general media were gaining influence in the field. We grew concerned about claims being made in the popular press concerning emotional intelligence. This editorial in the American Psychological Association's news magazine, the Monitor, was a response to that concern.
Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D., & Salovey, P. (1999). Emotional intelligence meets traditional standards for an intelligence. Intelligence, 27, 267-298. [Winner of the Mensa Education and Research Foundation and Mensa International, Ltd. 2001 Award for Excellence in Research]. The Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS) was developed to serve as a comprehensive measure of EI -- a measure of our full four-branch model of emotional intelligence. The article describes two studies with the MEIS, one with adults and one with adolescents, and uses the findings to argue that emotional intelligence behaves like a traditional intelligence.


PART 2: 2002-2003

Cobb, C., & Mayer, J. D. (2000). Emotional intelligence: What the research says. Educational Leadership, 58, 14-18. [Reprinted in Duffy, K. G. (Ed.) Annual Editions: Psychology 02/03 (32nd Edition), pp. 113-117. Guilford, CT: McGraw-Hill/Duskin]. Many discussions of emotional intelligence in the popular media (e.g., TIME and elsewhere) were aimed at generating a program of instruction related to emotional intelligence. My colleagues and I wrote this article to communicate the scientific findings of the time to those educational leaders interested in emotional intelligence.

Mayer, J.D. (2000). Emotion, intelligence, emotional intelligence. In J. P. Forgas (Ed.), The handbook of affect and social cognition (pp. 410-431). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum & Associates. This article outlines some of the relationships between emotional intelligence research, on the one hand, and research in the emotions and intelligences, on the other. Particular attention is paid to the area of "cognition and affect" which more generally studies interactions between thought and feeling.
Mayer, J. D., & Cobb, C. D. (2000). Educational policy on emotional intelligence: Does it make sense? Educational Psychology Review, 12, 163-183. This article presents a detailed analysis of some of the writings on emotional intelligence and educational curricula. It analyzes claims then being made for emotional intelligence, and suggests how a curriculum based on EI might differ from a more general curriculum devoted to socio-emotional learning.
Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2000). Models of emotional intelligence. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of intelligence (pp. 396-420). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. This article describes some of the background to the study of emotional intelligence. It then compares several models of emotional intelligence then current, including Daniel Goleman's popular 1995 and 1998 models, the models underlying the Bar-On EQ-i, and our own four-branch ability model of EI. The article then relates the models to research in intelligence more generally.

Mayer, J. D., Perkins, D., Caruso, D. R., & Salovey, P. (2001). Emotional intelligence and giftedness. Roeper Review, 23 (3), 131-137. This article presents a study of 12 adolescents who took the adolescent version of the MEIS and examines some recent socially-challenging events in their lives. The article ends with some qualitative analyses of individual cases suggesting how differences in EI play out in socially challenging situations.

Mayer, J. D. (2001). A field guide to emotional intelligence. In J. Ciarrochi, J. P. Forgas, & J. D. Mayer (Eds.), Emotional intelligence and everday life (pp.3-24). New York: Psychology Press. This chapter examines how the field of emotional intelligence emerged, various approaches to EI, and places EI in a personality context. It addresses such questions as whether EI is important, and why.

Mayer, J.D., Salovey, P., Caruso, D.L., & Sitarenios, G. (2001). Emotional intelligence as a standard intelligence. Emotion, 1, 232-242. Other researchers raised questions as to whether our 2000 article (see Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2000, above) on emotional intelligence as a standard intelligence really made the case that EI is an intelligence. Here, we further explain our position on EI as a standard intelligence. In particular, we elaborate on the idea of emotional information, what it is, and how people reason with it. The article also examines issues related to how to establish a "criterion of correctness" for an EI item.

Caruso, D. R., Mayer, J. D, & Salovey, P. (2002). Relation of an ability measure of emotional intelligence to personality. Journal of Personality Assessment, 79, 306-320. This is a validity study examining the relationship between the MEIS and various other trait measures of intelligence, motivation, emotion, and other characteristics of personality.


PART 3: 2003-2005

Brackett, M. A., & Mayer, J. D. (2003). Convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity of competing measures of emotional intelligence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 1147-1158. This article examines three tests designed to measure EI, the Schutte scale, the Bar-On EQ-i, and the MSCEIT. The three tests are shown to measure quite different psychological constructs (e.g., the test-to-test correlations are relatively low). Findings indicate that the MSCEIT is relatively independent of other personality measures.

Ciarrochi, J., Caputi, P., & Mayer, J. D. (2003). The distinctiveness and utility of a measure of trait emotional awareness. Personality and Individual Differences, 34, 1477-1490. This article examines the relationship between the MSCEIT test and the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS). The two scales are found to measure two different things (i.e., their test-to-test correlations are low).

Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., Caruso, D. R., & Sitarenios, G. (2003). Measuring emotional intelligence with the MSCEIT V2.0. Emotion, 3, 97-105. This article presents new evidence that both emotions experts and members of general samples can agree as to the best answer to an emotional intelligence item. It further indicates that scales of EI have high reliability. It provides persuasive evidence for a 3- or 4-factor model of emotional intelligence.

Brackett , M. A., Mayer, J. D., Warner , R. M. (2004). Emotional intelligence and its relation to everyday behaviour. Personality & Individual Differences, 36, 1387-1402. This article examines the relationship between emotional intelligence measured by the MSCEIT, and a person's external life space. The paper employs some innovative measurement technology on the side of assessing the life space. This particular data set was notable for some of the sex differences found in predictions (e.g., that the MSCEIT appeared to be more predictive for men than women).

Mayer, J. D. (2004). Be realistic. Harvard Business Review, 82, 28. This brief commentary cautions those interested in the emotional intelligence concept to be clear about what emotional intelligence is and isn't. It is (from this perspective) a mental ability involving emotions; it isn't optimism, motivation, etc.
Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2004). Emotional intelligence: Theory, findings, and implications. Psychological Inquiry, 15, 197-215. This article has the most comprehensive review to-date of what the MSCEIT predicts and how well it makes those predictions. It also has a nice introduction to the field and the theory of EI we employ.
Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2004). A further consideration of the issues of emotional intelligence. Psychological Inquiry, 15, 249-255. This article considers further questions, objections, and agreements by a panel of commentators on Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso (2004) (see immediately above). It provides a more detailed look at the reliability and validity of the MSCEIT, and what those concepts mean.
Mayer, J. D., Panter, A. T., Salovey, P., Caruso, D. R., & Sitarenios. G. (2005). A discrepancy in analyses of the MSCEIT - Resolving the mystery and understanding its implications: A reply to Gignac (2005). Emotion, 5, 236-237. This very brief article clarifies the reasons that certain fit-indices of a factor analysis regarding the MSCEIT were reported as they were. The article is in response to a comment by Gignac (2005) on some possible anomalies in the factor analyses that my colleagues and I reported in the journal Emotion in 2003 (see above, for a reprint). Our reply draws some general conclusions as to what is known about the factor structure of the MSCEIT at this time.


PART 4: 2006-2008

Mayer, J. D. (2006). A new field guide to emotional intelligence. In J. Ciarrochi, J. P. Forgas, & J. D. Mayer (Eds.) Emotional intelligence and everyday life (pp. 3-26) (2 nd ed). New York: Psychology Press. [Annotation to be added.]

Mayer, J. D. & Ciarrochi, J. (2006). Clarifying concepts related to emotional intelligence: A proposed glossary. In J. Ciarrochi, J. P. Forgas, & J. D. Mayer (Eds.) Emotional intelligence and everyday life (pp. 261-267) (2 nd ed). New York: Psychology Press. [Annotation to be added.]

Mayer, J. D. (2007). Personality function and personality change. In J. Ciarrochi & J. D. Mayer (Eds.). Applying Emotional Intelligence: A Practical Guide (pp. 125-143). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press. [Annotation to be added.]

Ciarrochi, J. & Mayer, J. D. (2007). The key ingredients of emotional intelligence interventions: Similarities and differences. In J. Ciarrochi & J. D. Mayer (Eds.). Improving Emotional Intelligence: A Practical Guide (pp. 144-156). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press. [Annotation to be added.]

Ivcevic, Z., Brackett, M. A. & Mayer, J. D. (2007). Emotional intelligence and emotional creativity. Journal of Personality, 75, 199-235. [Annotation to be added.]

Rivers, S. E., Brackett, M.A., Salovey, P., & Mayer, J.D. (2007). Measuring emotional intelligence as a set of mental abilities. In G. Matthews, M. Zeidner & R.D. Roberts (Eds.),The science of emotional intelligence: Knowns and unknowns (pp. 230-257). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Mayer, J. D., Barsade, S. G., & Roberts, R. D. (2008). Human abilities: Emotional intelligence. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 507-536.

Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2008)
Emotional intelligence: New ability or eclectic traits? American Psychologist, 63, 503-517.
Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2008b). What is emotional intelligence and what does it predict? In P. Kyllonen, R. Roberts, & L. Stankov (Eds.). Extending intelligence (pp. 319-348). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., Caruso, D., & Cherkasskiy, L. (2011). What is emotional intelligence and why does it matter? In In R.J. Sternberg & J. Kaufman (Eds.), The handbook of intelligence (3rd Edition) (pp. 528-549). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D. R., Panter, A. T., & Salovey, P. (in press). The growing significance of hot intelligences. American Psychologist.