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Laboratory Publications on Emotional Intelligence*

*A complete list of laboratory publications is available at www.unh.edu/personalitylab

Key Laboratory Publications on the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and Its Precursor, the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS)


Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D., & Salovey, P. (1999). Emotional intelligence meets traditional standards for an intelligence. Intelligence, 27, 267-298. [Winner of the Mensa Education and Research Foundation and Mensa International, Ltd. 2001 Award for Excellence in Research]. The Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS) was developed to serve as a comprehensive measure of EI -- a measure of our full four-branch model of emotional intelligence. The article describes two studies with the MEIS, one with adults and one with adolescents, and uses the findings to argue that emotional intelligence behaves like a traditional intelligence.

[This review describes the model on which the test is based, and provides a rationale for why that specific model is employed. It does not describe the MEIS or MSCEIT in particular.] Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2000). Models of emotional intelligence. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of intelligence (pp. 396-420). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. This article describes some of the background to the study of emotional intelligence. It then compares several models of emotional intelligence then current, including Daniel Goleman's popular 1995 and 1998 models, the models underlying the Bar-On EQ-i, and our own four-branch ability model of EI. The article then relates the models to research in intelligence more generally.

Mayer, J. D., Perkins, D., Caruso, D. R., & Salovey, P. (2001). Emotional intelligence and giftedness. Roeper Review, 23 (3), 131-137. This article presents a study of 12 adolescents who took the adolescent version of the MEIS and examines some recent socially-challenging events in their lives. The article ends with some qualitative analyses of individual cases suggesting how differences in EI play out in socially challenging situations.

Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., Caruso, D. L., & Sitarenios, G. (2001). Emotional intelligence as a standard intelligence. Emotion, 1, 232-242. Other researchers raised questions as to whether our 2000 article (see Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2000, above) on emotional intelligence as a standard intelligence really made the case that EI is an intelligence. Here, we further explain our position on EI as a standard intelligence. In particular, we elaborate on the idea of emotional information, what it is, and how people reason with it. The article also examines issues related to how to establish a "criterion of correctness" for an EI item.

Caruso, D. R., Mayer, J. D, & Salovey, P. (2002). Relation of an ability measure of emotional intelligence to personality. Journal of Personality Assessment, 79, 306-320. This is a validity study examining the relationship between the MEIS and various other trait measures of intelligence, motivation, emotion, and other characteristics of personality.

Brackett, M. A., & Mayer, J. D. (2003). Convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity of competing measures of emotional intelligence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 1147-1158. This article examines three tests designed to measure EI, the Schutte scale, the Bar-On EQ-i, and the MSCEIT. The three tests are shown to measure quite different psychological constructs (e.g., the test-to-test correlations are relatively low). Findings indicate that the MSCEIT is relatively independent of other personality measures.

Ciarrochi, J., Caputi, P., & Mayer, J. D. (2003). The distinctiveness and utility of a measure of trait emotional awareness. Personality and Individual Differences, 34, 1477-1490. This article examines the relationship between the MSCEIT test and the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS). The two scales are found to measure two different things (i.e., their test-to-test correlations are low).

Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., Caruso, D. R., & Sitarenios, G. (2003). Measuring emotional intelligence with the MSCEIT V2.0. Emotion, 3, 97-105. This article presents new evidence that both emotions experts and members of general samples can agree as to the best answer to an emotional intelligence item. It further indicates that scales of EI have high reliability. It provides persuasive evidence for a 3- or 4-factor model of emotional intelligence.

Brackett, M. A., Mayer, J. D., Warner , R. M. (2004). Emotional intelligence and its relation to everyday behaviour. Personality & Individual Differences, 36, 1387-1402. This article examines the relationship between emotional intelligence measured by the MSCEIT, and a person's external life space. The paper employs some innovative measurement technology on the side of assessing the life space (see the section on the life space on the web site: www.thepersonalitysystem.org). This particular data set was notable for some of the sex differences found in predictions (e.g., that the MSCEIT appeared to be more predictive for men than women).

Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2004). Emotional intelligence: Theory, findings, and implications. Psychological Inquiry, 15, 197-215. This article has the most comprehensive review to-date of what the MSCEIT predicts and how well it makes those predictions. It also has a nice introduction to the field and the theory of EI we employ.