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Cognition and Affect

Cognition and Affect More Generally

Key Laboratory Reprints from Cognition & Affect Research

Before there was an area of emotional intelligence research, there was an area of "cognition and afffect." The field of emotional intelligence drew on the area of cognition and affect, as well as other areas such as non-verbal behavior, artificial intelligence, and clinical psychology.

Cognition and Affect is a huge -- huge! -- area, and still very active and important. (Much of Daniel Goleman's popularization of emotional intelligence relied on research in the area of cognition and affect, and emotion more generally.) There are many reviews of the area.

Here are a couple of relevant edited books:

Eich, Eric; Kihlstrom, John F, Bower, Gordon.H., Forgas, Joseph. P., & Niedenthal, Paula M. (Eds.) (2000). Cognition and emotion. London: Oxford University Press.
Forgas, Joseph P (Ed.) (2001). Handbook of affect and social cognition. Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

To see how emotional intelligence evolved (in part) from research in cognition and affect, you can take a look at the following book chapter.

Mayer, J.D. (2000). Emotion, intelligence, and emotional intelligence. In J. P. Forgas (Ed.), Handbook of affect and social cognition (pp. 410-431). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum & Associates.

Here are a few reprints from this laboratory in the cognition and affect area. Some of the articles concern how naturally-occurring mood states influence cognition. The focus on naturally-occurring mood came out of an interest and focus on the dynamics between emotion and cognition that take place within the personality system.

Another article below (with Gaschke) introduced a new mood scale, and then examined how people reflected on their moods, and whether they believed they could accurately describe their feelings. This article concerned "meta-experience of mood" -- an idea many people now associate with emotional intelligence. This was followed up with another study with Stevens, to measure mood states with the State Meta-Mood Scale, and work with Salovey and Goldman in 1995 on the Trait Meta-Mood Scale.

Mayer, J. D. & Bremer, D. (1985). Assessing mood with affect-sensitive tasks. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 95-99. This article examines mood-congruent cognition with natural mood. It proposes that one indicator of mood is a person's cognitive positivity or negativity, as indexed by affect-sensitive tasks.

Mayer, J. D., & Gaschke, Y. N. (1988). The experience and meta-experience of mood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 102-111. This article introduces the idea of the meta-experience of mood -- the reflective, subjective, flow of ideas about one's own feeling states.

Mayer, J. D., Gaschke, Y., Braverman, D. L., & Evans, T. (1992). Mood-congruent judgment is a general effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 119-132. This is a further study of affect-sensitive tasks, with three demonstrations, including a state-wide survey of New Hampshire residents, indicating that their responses to questions such as, "Will education improve in the state?" is influenced by their mood.

Mayer, J. D., & Stevens, A. (1994). An emerging understanding of the reflective (meta-) experience of mood. Journal of Research in Personality, 28, 351-373. This paper presents the State Meta-Mood Scale, a measure of a person's reflections of their ongoing moods. Two broad aspects of meta-experience are examined: The reflective monitoring, and reflective regulation, of such moods. State-regulation is important, because reports of ongoing reflective evaluations of moods may be more valid than comparable trait scales. These state reactions suggest that there may be profiles of mood regulators.

Mayer, J. D., Allen, J., & Beauregard, K. (1995). Mood inductions for four specific moods: A procedure employing guided imagery vignettes with music. Journal of Mental Imagery, 19, 133-150. This study provides an experimental technique for the induction of four moods: Happiness, sadness, fear, and anger. The induction involves guided imagery, enhanced by carefully selected musical pieces.

Mayer, J. D., & Hanson, E. (1995). Mood-congruent judgment over time. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 237-244. This 4-week longitudinal study illustrates how members of sororities and fraternities vary in their judgments over time depending upon their moods.

Mayer, J. D., McCormick, L. J., & Strong, S. E. (1995). Mood-congruent recall and natural mood: New evidence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 736-746. Early on in the area of cognition and affect, mood-congruent judment was plainly demonstrated. The mood-congruent memory effect, however, was not quite so strong or so consistently obtained. In particular, there had been no clear demonstrations of mood-congruent memory with natural mood. This article demonstrates mood-congruent memory with natural mood, showing how it can be obtained and indicating its strength relative to mood congruent judgment.
Salovey, P., Mayer, J. D., Goldman, S., Turvey, C, & Palfai, T. (1995). Emotional attention, clarity, and repair: Exploring emotional intelligence using the Trait Meta-Mood Scale. In J. W. Pennebaker (Ed.), Emotion, disclosure, and health (pp. 125-154). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. This article presents a scale of meta-experience of mood. The meta-experience of mood is the subjective experience one has of perceiving one's ongoing emotions and moods.