Variable Definitions, Terms and References

 

Variable Name

Variable Description and Values

References

Key Identification Information:

County

Name of the County


State

Name of the State


FIPS Code

Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 6-4 provides the names and codes that represent the counties and other entities treated as equivalent legal and/or statistical subdivisions of the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the possessions of the United States.

National Institute of Standards and Technology

Amenity Characteristics:

Recreational County

Nonmetropolitan counties with high expenditures and labor force participation in recreational industries, large percentage of seasonal housing, high per capita hotel expenditures and contextual evidence of recreational concentrations.

K.M. Johnson and C.L. Beale. 2002. "Nonmetro Recreational Counties: Identification and Implications", Rural America, 17(4): 12-19.

Retirement County

Counties where number of residents 60 and older grew by 15 percent or more between 2000 and 2010 due to immigration.

2004 County Typology Codes, Economic Research Service.

Amenity Level

A six category summary variable of David McGranahan's more detailed amenity scale. Based on measures of environmental quality (temperate climate, days of sunlight, moderate humidity, topography and water).

McGranahan, David. 1999. Natural Amenities Drive Rural Population Change, U.S.D.A.: Economic Research Service Publication, AER781.

% Seasonal Housing

Percentage of 2010 housing units that are for seasonal, recreational or occasional use.

 Census of Housing and Population, Technical Documentation. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of the Census.

% Water

Water Area - Water area as a proportion of total county area.

Note: Coastal waters extend 3 miles offshore and all of the Great Lakes within the U.S. are assigned to a county.

McGranahan, David. 1999. Natural Amenities Drive Rural Population Change, U.S.D.A.: Economic Research Service Publication, AER781.

Mean Jan. Temperature

Mean January temperature

McGranahan, David. 1999. Natural Amenities Drive Rural Population Change, U.S.D.A.: Economic Research Service Publication, AER781.

Mean July Temperature

Mean July temperature

McGranahan, David. 1999. Natural Amenities Drive Rural Population Change, U.S.D.A.: Economic Research Service Publication, AER781.

Topography

Topography - Five basic landforms and 21 categories of land area are delineated using the National Atlas of the United States, 1970.

McGranahan, David. 1999. Natural Amenities Drive Rural Population Change, U.S.D.A.: Economic Research Service Publication, AER781.

Metro Status

Metropolitan Status - 2004

Metro Counties

  • Large metro area of 1+ million residents.
  • Small metro area of less than 1 million residents.

Nonmetro counties:

  • Micropolitan adjacent to large metro.
  • Adjacent to large metro.
  • Micropolitan adjacent to small metro.
  • Adjacent to small metro with town.
  • Adjacent to small metro no town.
  • Micropolitan not adjacent to a metro area.
  • Adjacent to micro with town.
  • Adjacent to micro with no town.
  • Not adjacent to metro or micro with town.
  • Not adjacent to metro or micro with no town.

Urban Influence Codes, Economic Research Service.

Metro/Non-Metro Category

Classifies counties into six categories using the urban influence and rural-urban continuum codes from the ERS (2004):

  • Large metro core
  • Large metro fringe
  • Small metro core
  • Small metro fringe
  • Nonmetro adjacent
  • Nonmetro not adjacent

Urban Influence Codes, Economic Research Service.

Economic Type

Classifies counties designated as nonmetro into one of six non-overlapping types that indicate the county's primary economic activity.

  • Farming-dependent -- Either 15 percent or more of average annual labor and proprietors' earnings derived from farming during 1998-2000 or 15 percent or more of employed residents worked in farm occupations in 2000.
  • Mining-dependent -- 15 percent or more of average annual labor and proprietors' earnings derived from mining during 1998-2000.
  • Manufacturing-dependent -- 25 percent or more of average annual labor and proprietors' earnings derived from manufacturing during 1998-2000.
  • Federal/State Government-dependent -- 15 percent or more of average annual labor and proprietors' earnings derived from Federal and State government during 1998-2000.
  • Services-dependent -- 45 percent or more of average annual labor and proprietors' earnings derived from services (SIC categories of retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services) during 1998-2000.
  • Nonspecialized -- Did not meet the dependence threshold for any one of the above industries.

2004 County Typology Codes, Economic Research Service.

Policy Type

Classification of nonmetropolitan counties into overlapping types with special relevancy for rural policy.

  • Housing Stress -- 30 percent or more of households had one or more of these housing conditions in 2000: lacked complete plumbing, lacked complete kitchen, paid 30 percent or more of income for owner costs or rent, or had more than 1 person per room.
  • Low Education -- 25 percent or more of residents 25-64 years old had neither a high school diploma nor GED in 2000.
  • Low Employment -- Less than 65 percent of residents 21-64 years old were employed in 2000.
  • Persistent Poverty -- 20 percent or more of residents were poor as measured by each of the last 4 censuses, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010.
  • Population Loss -- Number of residents declined both between the 1980 and 1990 censuses and between the 1990 and 2000 censuses.

2004 County Typology Codes, Economic Research Service.

Forest Land:

Percent Land in NF

National Forest acreage as a percentage of total land acreage (excludes water acreage) in a county, 2010.

National Forest Acreage Data: Land Areas of the National Forest System, U.S.D.A. Forest Service

Analysis: K.M. Johnson, The University of New Hampshire

Acreage in NF

National Forest acreage, 2010.

National Forest Acreage Data: Land Areas of the National Forest System, U.S.D.A. Forest Service

Total Forests Acreage

Forest land in all ownership categories (i.e., public and private) using the NLCD, 2006.

Forest Acreage Data: National Land Cover Database (NLCD), U.S.G.S.


Analysis: K.M. Johnson, The University of New Hampshire

Population and Demographic Change:

Total Population, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010

Population of the county enumerated in the decenial census on the specified date.

2010 Census of Housing and Population, Technical Documentation. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of the Census.

Total Population, 2013

Estimated population of the county.

Federal-State Cooperative Population Estimates, U.S. Bureau of the Census.

Population Change

Change in the county population between two respective censuses. Percentage change is calculated as: ((Pop at later Census - Pop at earlier Census)/ Pop at earlier Census) * 100. Data for 2013 is for July 1 to July 1.

Analysis: K.M.Johnson, The University of New Hampshire

Net Migration

Calculated as the residual of Population Change minus Natural Increase. Percentage change from net migration is calculated as ((Population Change - Natural Increase)/ Population at earlier census) * 100.

Birth and Death data: Federal-State Cooperative Population Estimates, U.S. Bureau of the Census

Analysis: K.M. Johnson, The University of New Hampshire

Natural Increase

Difference between the number of births and deaths in the county during the Census interval. Percentage change due to natural increase is calculated as: ((Births - Deaths)/ Pop at earlier Census) * 100. Natural increase data are from the Federal State Cooperative Population Estimates produced by the U.S. Census Bureau.

Birth and Death data: Federal-State Cooperative Population Estimates, U.S. Bureau of the Census

Analysis: K.M. Johnson, The University of New Hampshire

Migration

In-Migration is the sum of all in-exemptions, US and Foreign, for the identified time period.  Out-Migration is the sum of all out-exemptions, US and Foreign, for the identified time period.  Net migration is the difference between summed in-exemptions and summed out-exemptions for the identified time period.

Migration data: IRS Migration Data provided by the Missouri Census Data Center

 

Analysis: K.M. Johnson, The University of New Hampshire

Demographic Characteristics (2010 Census):

Race - Population

Race and Hispanic origin as calculated from 2010 census data. Categories are:

  • Non-Hispanic White,
  • Non-Hispanic Black,
  • Hispanic,
  • Non-Hispanic Asian,
  • Non-Hispanic American Indian,
  • Non-Hispanic Other.

Population data: 2010 Census of Housing and Population, Technical Documentation. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of the Census.

Analysis: K.M. Johnson, The University of New Hampshire

Race - Percent

Race and Hispanic origin represented as a percentage of the 2010 census data. Categories are:

  • Non-Hispanic White,
  • Non-Hispanic Black,
  • Hispanic,
  • Non-Hispanic Asian,
  • Non-Hispanic American Indian,
  • Non-Hispanic Other.

Analysis: K.M. Johnson, The University of New Hampshire

Age Structure - Population

Age Structure represents aggregated age data from 2010 Census. Categories are:

  • 0 to 19 years
  • 20 to 39 years
  • 40 to 59 years
  • 60 years or older

Population data: 2010 Census of Housing and Population, Technical Documentation. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of the Census.


Analysis: K.M. Johnson, The University of New Hampshire

Age Structure - Percent

Age Structure represented as a percentage of the 2010 Census data. Categories are:

  • 0 to 19 years
  • 20 to 39 years
  • 40 to 59 years
  • 60 years or older

Analysis: K.M. Johnson, The University of New Hampshire

Median Age

Median age from the 2010 Census enumeration of the total population.

Population data: SF2 Dataset, U.S. Bureau of the Census.

Analysis: K.M. Johnson, The University of New Hampshire

Population Density (per square mile)

 

 

Census 2010 population divided by the county land area

Population data: 2010 Census of Housing and Population, Technical Documentation. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of the Census.

Analysis: K.M. Johnson, The University of New Hampshire

Population Over 25 with High School

American Community Survey, 2005-2009, percentage of population 25 years and over with High School diploma.

2005-2009 American Community Survey, US Census Bureau

Population Over 25 with Bachelors or More

American Community Survey, 2005-2009, percent of population over 25 years of age with Bachelors degree or more.

2005-2009 American Community Survey, US Census Bureau

Median Family Income

American Community Survey, 2005-2009, median income of families. A family includes a householder and one or more individuals related to the householder by birth, marriage or adoption.

2005-2009 American Community Survey, US Census Bureau

Families Below Poverty Line

American Community Survey, 2005-2009, Families below the poverty line - Percentage of families in the county that are below the poverty threshold. The income threshold for poverty varies by family size, number of children and age of the householder.

2005-2009 American Community Survey, US Census Bureau