Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire - 2nd Revision (JVQ-R2)
The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ-R2; Hamby, Finkelhor, Ormrod, & Turner, 2005) covers five general areas of youth victimization:
- conventional crime
- victimization by peers and siblings
- sexual victimization
- witnessing and indirect victimization
The JVQ covers victimizations that are unique to childhood, such as neglect and statutory rape, as well as crimes that can occur to youth as well as to adults, such as assault and theft. A comprehensive approach to victimization assessment can enhance the understanding of the true burden of youth victimization (either for one individual or for groups) and can assist with program development and treatment planning to make certain that youth safety is being addressed in all relevant domains (home, school, neighborhood, etc.).
The JVQ includes state-of-the-art techniques for assessing very sensitive victimization. These techniques include specific questions to target victimizations by parents, peers, and other perpetrators that are less likely to be identified through generic questioning, and behaviorally-specific wording that clearly defines the types of incidents children should report (Finkelhor, Hamby, Ormrod, & Turner, 2005). The JVQ has also undergone one of the most exhaustive conceptual and wording screenings of any victimization questionnaire. Extensive attention has been paid to translating clinical and legal concepts such as “psychological abuse” and “aggravated assault” into language that children can understand. Thus, most children ages 8 and over can complete the JVQ.
Screener approach. The purpose of the JVQ is to provide a comprehensive picture of multiple forms of victimization. Across each major violence area, several “screener” questions are asked about specific forms of victimization, using a yes/no response format. There are several screeners for important categories such as “physical assault,” but because it is not possible to ask, in a single survey, detailed or numerous questions about every possible type of physical assault, most specific types of assault are represented by one screener. For example, there is one screener for dating violence and one screener for gang or group assault.
After completing all screeners (more than 50 if all available ones are used), incident characteristics such as perpetrator identity (“Who did this?”) are obtained in a follow-up portion of the interview. The JVQ-R2 includes 40 follow-up questions on a variety of incident, perpetrator, and victim characteristics. Some of these, such as whether the incident occurred in the past year and perpetrator identity, are asked about all or nearly all victimization reports. Other follow-ups, however, are specific to certain victimizations. Every effort has been made to keep the number of follow-ups to a minimum to keep the survey as brief as possible, while balancing the need for key information.
There are several scoring options available. Sometimes answers to individual items are of interest. Other times it is useful to combine answers to multiple items into broader categories, which we call “aggregates,” such as “physical assault.” The sections on scoring and interpretation on this website provide more information about the choices available for scoring.