As noted by Olweus (2001), “a student is being bullied or victimized when he or she is exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more students." There are a wide range of behaviors consistent with bullying, including physical, verbal, and relational manifestations.
- Approximately 30% of youth in the United States report moderate or frequent involvement in bullying in some capacity (Nansel et al., 2001).
- Boys are more likely to be involved in physical bullying (such as hitting, whereas girls are more likely to be involved in relational bullying (such as social exclusion).
- Bullies are more likely to have behavioral, emotional, or learning problems than their peers, and to have parents who use physical discipline
- Victims of bullying experience higher rates of loneliness, depression, school avoidance, and suicidal ideation than their peers.
- Youth involved in bullying in any capacity tend to have higher rates of victimization in the home and community than their peers (Holt, Finkelhor, & Kaufman Kantor, 2007).
Olweus, D. (2001). Peer harassment: A critical analysis and some important issues. In J. Juvonen & S. Graham (Eds.), Peer harassment in schools: The plight of the vulnerable and the victimized. New York: The Guilford Press.