Musical Instruments in Western European Art
An Iconographical Guide
The Tambourine --19th Century
[GB] BRITISH ARTISTS

I: Old Testament

Miriam/Crossing the Red Sea: [Westlake Gl] Westlake, Nathaniel Hubert John (1833-1921). Miriam Rejoicing. British art market (1981). stained glass. Miriam dances to her tambourine. Others play lyre, ribbed horn, tambourine and triangle (child). (sale, Boardman, Haverhill [Suffolk] 17.VI.1981; Die Weltkunst 51 [1981] 1756 [minuscule reproduction])

V: Mythology

Muses: [Leighton Pa] Leighton, Lord Frederic (1830-1896). Terpsichore. London art market (1982). She dances to her tambourine. There is also a nude child dancing to a double woodwind. (sale Sotheby's June 1982; Die Weltkunst 52 [1982] 2010)

[Leighton Dr] _______. Four Studies of a Draped Female Figure with a Tambourine. drawing. London art market (1981). (Burlington 123 [1981] April ad p. xxvi)

Other: [Alma-Tadema Pa] Alma-Tadema, Sir Lawrence (1836-1912). The Consecration of the Priestess of Bacchus (1889). no location. There is perhaps a player of a woodwind, and there are at least eight tambourine players. (H. J. Hansen, ed. Das pompöse Zeitalter; zwischen Biedermeier und Jugendstil. Oldenburg 1970. p. 134 [color detail] no location)

VI: Literary and Historical Subjects

[Alma-Tadema Pa] Alma-Tadema, Sir Lawrence (1836-1912). A Reading from Homer. Philadelphia Museum of Art. A man holds a kithara and a woman holds a tambourine. (Apollo 100 [1974] 39)

[Alma-Tadema Pa] _______. The Women of Amphissa (1887). Williamstown, Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute. There is a tambourine on the floor. (sale Christie's 24.I.1975; Apollo 101 [1975] January ad p. 9; Apollo 108 [1978] 273 [small reproduction]; Burlington 125 [1983] 600)

VII: Allegory

Seasons: [Alma-Tadema Pa] Alma-Tadema, Sir Lawrence (1836-1912). Spring Festival. New York art market (1966). Three men play woodwind instruments and four dancing women play tambourines. (Burlington 108 [1966] Feb. ad p. xxxiii; Connoisseur 168 [1968] July ad pl xlvii)

[Alma-Tadema Pa] _______. Spring Festival. Los Angeles art market (1972). A procession led by a female (?) flutist and including two players of huge tambourines. (Apollo 95 [1972] 430 [small reproduction]; Burlington 114 [1972] Feb. ad p. xxiv)

[Alma-Tadema Pa] _______. Harvest Festival. Hamburg KH. Figures play two double woodwinds, flute and tambourine. (Gazette des Beaux-Arts 120 [September 1992] La chronique des arts no. 1484, p. 26 [small reproduction])

Triumph: [Crane Pr] Crane, Walter (1845-1915). Le triomphe du Travail. Manifestation Internationale du Ier Mai 1891 dedié aux travailleurs de tous les pays." woodcut. A festive procession including players of a shepherd's pipe, a wavy trumpet and a woman playing a tambourine. (W. Hofmann. Das irdische Paradies. Motive und Ideen des 19. Jahrhunderts. 2/Munich 1974. p. 107; exh Bremen KH, 1965: Europaischer Jugendstil. no. 356)

XIII: Scenes of Everyday Life -- Outdoor

Processions/Parades: See also Allegory, Triumph.

Street Scenes: [Hillingford Pa] Hillingford, Robert A. (1828-1902). Festival Day in Rome (1859). German art market (1981). Includes several mandola players and two women with tambourines. (Die Weltkunst 51 [1981] 1671)

[Lambert Pa] Lambert, E. F. (op. 1823-1846). The Annual Fête of the Licensed Victuallers' School (1831). London, Museum of London. The Duke of Gloucester's band leading a procession of school children. It includes a negro tambourine player. (1970 catalog of paintings. Ed. J. Hayes. pl. no. not recorded [reproduction not good for details])

[Phillips Pa] Phillips, John (1817-1867). La Gloria. Edinburgh NGS. Figures play two guitars. There are dancers, at least one with a tambourine, and there is a large unplayed tambourine. Italian setting. (National Gallery of Scotland. Illustrations. Edinburgh 1937. p. 104)

XV: Miscellaneous Figures

Musicians (amateur and professional): [BI Leipzig 1846] The "Ethiopian Serenaders" in a Concert in London, from the Illustrirte Zeitung, Leipzig 1846. A negro band with two banjos, accordion, castanets and tambourine. (MgB IV/2, p. 157)

[NL] DUTCH ARTISTS

XIII: Scenes of Everyday Life -- Outdoor

Village/Rustic Scenes: [Phillipeau Pa] Phillipeau, Carel-Frans (1825-1897). A Romany Dance. London art market (1951). A group of gypsy women and children gathered by a well. Two girls dance, flourishing tambourines. (Connoisseur 128 [1951] August ad p. [xli])

[B] FLEMISH ARTISTS

X: Portraits, Genre Portraits and Conversation Pieces

[Stallaert Pa] Stallaert, Joseph (1825-1903). Portrait of a Roman Woman with a Tambourine (1849). no location. It is a large tambourine with jingles and two (?) rows of pellet bells strung across the head. The tambourine is at the viewer's right in the composition. (exh Rome, CIC Pantheon, 1983: Bartolomeo Pinelli ... no. 243, p. 106 [ok reproduction], no location)

[Stallaert Pa] _______. Portrait of a Roman Woman with a Tambourine (1849). no location. It is a large tambourine, viewed from the edge The tambourine is at the viewer's left in the composition. (exh Rome, CIC Pantheon, 1983: Bartolomeo Pinelli ... no. 244, p. 106 [ok reproduction], no location)

[F] FRENCH ARTISTS

NOTE: There are numerous illustrations with tambourine players of many cultures in H. R. Cohen. Les Gravures musicales dans L'Illustration 1843-1899. Québec 1982-83. See the entries for "tambour de basque," and "tambourin," vol. III, pp. 109-110.

I: Old Testament

Jephtha: [Doré Pr] Doré, Gustave (1832-1883). The Daughter of Jephthah, from a La Sainte Bible. Tours, Alfred Mame et fils, 1866. woodcut. One of her attendants beats a tambourine or a shallow frame drum (with at least a pellet bell dangling from it). (Gazette des Beaux-Arts 79 [1972] 188 [small reproduction], as 1865)

Bacchanals: See also Allegory, Seasons.

[Bouguereau Pa] Bouguereau, William (1825-1905). The Childhood of Bacchus (1884). private collection. A centaur plays a double woodwind, a nude man plays cymbals, and a female child plays a tambourine. (Die Weltkunst 54 [1984] 2004 [poor reproduction])

VI: Literary and Historical Subjects/Figures

[Doré Pr] Doré, Gustave (1832-1883). Les Noces de Gemache,from Cervantes, L'ingénieux hidalgo don Quichotte de la Mancha. Paris, L. Hachette, 1863. woodcut. The musicians include a woman (?) playing a tambourine. (Gazette des Beaux-Arts 79 [1972] 186)

VII: Allegory

Dance: [Carpeaux Sc] Carpeaux, Jean-Baptiste (1827-1875). Dancer. Detroit Institute of Arts. sculpture. It plays or holds aloft a tambourine. Related to The Dance (Paris). (Burlington 130 (1988) 499, as ca.1872; Gazette des Beaux-Arts 103 [March 1984] La chronique des arts no. 1382, p. 32)

[Carpeaux Sc] _______. The Dance (1866-69). Paris, Musée d'Orsay (formerly in the Musée de l'Opéra). sculptured figure group. Originally for the facade of the Opéra. A man plays a tambourine as other figures dance. (A. M. Vogt. Art of the Nineteenth Century. Transl. A. F. Banco. New York 1973. no. 95; A. M. Wagner. Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux ... New Haven 1986. color pl. VI, opp. p. 230, as 1865-69; p. 180 [photo of the display of the Carpeaux atelier, Salle des Céramiques, Exposition Universelle, 1878, with a smaller version among the exhibited objects], p. 208 [photo, showing the sculpture in place at the Opéra], p. 210 [facade of the Opéra -- one can barely see it], p. 215 ["Les Curieux devant le groupe de la Danse, de M. Carpeaux," wood engraving from L'Illustration, 1869], p. 216 [Cham. "C'est splendide,!" wood engraving from Le Charivari, 1875 -- a proper middle-class couple regard it from the street], p. 234 ["Ne les regarde donc pas, ça les exite encore," wood engraving from Le Charivari, 1869 -- a proper middle-class couple look resolutely forward as they pass it], p. 235 [Gilbert. "La furia de la danse," wood engraving from Le Charivari, 1869 -- a couple dances wildly in front of the sculpture], p. 244 [photo by E. Appert -- someone threw ink on the sculpture], p. 248 [Five dancing female figures. Chicago AI. drawing. ca.1866], p. 139 [plaster sketch, Paris, d'Orsay, ca.1822]; Art History 10 (1987) 92 [ok reproduction])

Seasons: [Andrieu Pa] Andrieu, Pierre (1821-1892). Hommage to Ceres/Summer. Chateau de Guermantes. Includes a figure with a tambourine? very unimp. (Gazette des Beaux-Arts 67 [1966] 104)

[Andrieu Pa] _______. The Cortege of Bacchus/Autumn. Chateau de Guermantes. Includes a bacchante with a tambourine. (Gazette des Beaux-Arts 67 [1966] 105)

XIII: Scenes of Everyday Life -- Outdoor

Dances and Dancers: [BI Paris 1849] Anon. "Un jardin aux environs de Tiflis," from L'Illustration, 22 September 1849. wood engraving. A woman dances with castanets, accompanied by women playing a long-necked lute and a tambourine. (Cohen Gravures musicales. no. 343)

[BI Paris 1851] Valentin, Henri (1820-1855). "Danses arabes," from "Scènes de moeurs arabes," from L'Illustration,13 September 1851. p. 151. wood engraving. A dancing couple is accompanied by several musicians, including one playing a tambourine. (Cohen Gravures musicales. no. 446 [minuscule reproduction])

Street Scenes: [BI Paris 1857] Anon. German Street Musicians, from L'Illustration,31 January 1857, p. 69. wood engraving. One of them, a woman, plays a tambourine. (Cohen Gravures musicales no. 727C)

[Daumier Pr] Daumier, Honoré (1810-1879). "Ventre affamé n'a pas d'oreilles." lithograph. Street musicians. Men play violin and sing with a tambourine. A woman plays a guitar (?). (C. G. Boerner, Düsseldorf, cat. no. 45 [1967] no. 15)

[Doré Dr] Doré, Gustave (1832-1883). An Old Woman Combing a Young Woman's Hair (1868). New York art market (1979). The young woman holds a tambourine. (Burlington 121 [1979] 267)

Village/Rustic Scenes: [Doré Dr] Doré, Gustave (1832-1883). Gypsy Musicians on the Outskirts of Granada. drawing? A woman has a guitar slung over her shoulder and holds a baby and a tambourine. (F. Grunfeld. The Art and Times of the Guitar. London 1969. p. 251, no location)

[Doré Pr] _______, after. Bolero Dancer. wood engraving. She dances accompanied by men playing violin, guitar and tambourine. (MGG II, cols. 81-82)

XIV: Scenes of Everyday Life -- Indoor

Circus: [BI Paris 1845] Anon. "Cirque-Olympique des Champs-Élysées, -- Les Danseuses moresques," from L'Illustration, 27 September 1845, p. 52. wood engraving. The dancers are accompanied by three Arab musicians, including one playing a tambourine. (Cohen Gravures musicales. no. 135 [small reproduction])

Interiors (not church, inn): [Pelez Dr] Pelez, Fernand (1820-1899). A Living Room in Second Empire Style (1862?). private collection. There is an upright piano and, on the sofa, a tambourine and music. (M. Praz. An Illustrated History of Furnishing. New York 1964. p. 347 [fine color reproduction])

Operatic/Theatrical Scenes: [BI Paris 1843] Lange, Janet (1816-1872). "Théâtre des Variétes. -- Les Contrebandiers de la Sierra-Nevada,ballet espagnol," from L'Illustration, 22 July, 1843. p. 333. wood engraving. The dancers are accompanied by musicians playing two pulcked stringed instruments (incut waists). Two of the male dancers play tambourines. (Cohen Gravures musicales. no. 21 [small reproduction])

[BI Paris 1847] Valentin, Henri. "Académie royale de Musique. La Fille de Marbre; acte Ier," from L'Illustration, 30 October 1847, p. 141. A couple dances, the woman playing a tambourine. (Cohen Gravures musicales. no. 244B [small reproduction])

XV: Miscellaneous Figures

Dancers: [BI Paris 1846] Valentin, Henri (1820-1855). "Danse dans la campagne," from L'Illustration, 17 October, 1846, p. 103. wood engraving. A couple dances in a landscape, the woman playing a tambourine. (Cohen Gravures musicales. no. 190 [small reproduction])

[BI Paris 1847] Valentin, Henrii (1820-1855). "Abyssinie. -- La danse de l'abeille,en Égypte," from L'Illustration, 14 August 1847, p. 379. wood engraving. A belly dancer dances accompanied by musicians playing a shawm and a tambourine. (Cohen Gravures musicales. no. 233 [small reproduction])

[BI Paris 1848] Cham (Amedée-Charles Henri, comte de Noé) (1819-1879). "Danseurs espagnols," from L'Illustration, 29 April 1848, p. 141. wood engraving. A caricature. A musician and a high-flying female dancer play tambourines. (Cohen Gravures musicales. no. 270 B [small reproduction])

[Renoir Pa] Renoir, Pierre Auguste (1841-1919). Female Dancers (a pair) (1909). London NG. One has castanets, the other, a tambourine. (N. Wadley, ed. Renoir, A Retrospective. New York 1989. color pl. 112 [fine color reproduction]; National Gallery Acquisitions 1953-1962. unnumbered p.; Burlington 130 [1988] 285 [the dancer with the tambourine])

Itinerant/Street Musicians: [BI Paris 1848] Valentin, Henri (1820-1855). "Une halte de bohémiens dans les Vosges," from L'Illustration, 22 January 1848, p. 324. Includes several musicians, one of whom plays a tambourine. (CohenGravures musicales. no. 256 [small reproduction])

Musicians (amateur and professional): [BI Paris 1844] Lange, Janet (1816-1872). "Les ménestrels de la Virginie," from L'Illustration, 11 July 1844, p. 307. wood engraving. Black american musicians play violin, banjo, bones and tambourine. (Cohen Gravures musicales. no. 72 [small reproduction])

[BI Paris 1847] Delacroix, Eugène (1798-1863), after. "Musiciens juifs de Mogador," from L'Illustration, 1 May 1847, p. 136. wood engraving. They play a long-necked lute and a tambourine. (Cohen Gravures musicales. no. 218 [small reproduction])

[CI Paris 1878] Olsen, Bernhard (1836-1922), after. Tunisian Coffee House with Musicians at the World's Fair, Paris, 1878, from the Illustreret Tidende, Copenhagen 1878, vol. 19, p. 403. wood engraving. The musicians play a bowed stringed instrument, a plucked stringed instrument, a drum and a tambourine. (MgB IV/2, p. 155; C. Dahlberg. Die Musik des 19. Jahrhunderts. Wiesbaden 1980. p. 253)

[BI Paris 1850] Stop [Louis Pierre Gabriel Bernard Morel-Retz]. "Avec accompagnement d'un tambour de basque," from "Aventures sentimentales et dramatiques de Mr Verdreau par Stop," from L'Illustration, 12 January 1850, p. 29. wood engraving. Mr Verdreau plays a tambourine. (Cohen Gravures musicales. no. 359 E [small reproduction])

[BI Paris 1851] Valentin, Henri (1820-1855). "Soirée sous la tente," from "Scènes de moeurs arabes," from L'Illustration, 6 September 1851. p. 151. wood engraving. Includes musicians playing a lute and a tambourine. (Cohen Gravures musicales. no. 445 D [small reproduction])

[Daumier Pr] Daumier, Honoré (1810-1879). L'Orchestre de Charivari (1833). wood engraving. The musicians include a tambourine player (thumb on head). (B. Laughton. Honoré Daumier. New Haven 1996. p. 11)

[Renoir Pa] Renoir, Pierre Auguste (1841-1919). Italian Girl with a Tambourine. private collection. (Storia della pittura italiana dell'ottocento, II. Milan 1975. fig. 1206)

[DACH] GERMAN, AUSTRIAN AND SWISS ARTISTS

I: Old Testament

Miriam/Crossing the Red Sea: See also Portraits/Conversation Pieces.

[Sc Ulm Münster] Anon., 19th century. Miriam. Ulm, Münster, Organ Case. wood sculpture. She holds a tambourine. (Musica calendar 1974: 22 August - 4 September [fine reproduction])

[Köhler Pa] Köhler, Christian (1809-1861). Miriam's Song of Praise. Düsseldorf, Kunstmuseum. Miriam and friends play lyre, cymbals and tambourine (Miriam?). (K. Koetschau. Rheinische Malerei in der Biedermeierzeit. Düsseldorf 1926. p. 236; I. Markowitz. Die Düsseldorfer Malerschule. Düsseldorf 1969. catalog vol. 4, part 2. no. 99)

II: New Testament

Cana, Wedding at: [Fürich Pr] Führich, Josef von (1800-1876). The Wedding at Cana. etching. Musicians play a viol, a sort of long cornett//short alphorn, tambourine and triangle. (Die Weltkunst 48 [1978] 1436 [fair reproduction])

Parables -- Prodigal Son: [Fürich Dr?] Führich, Josef von (1800-1876). The Prodigal Son among Harlots (1869). Vienna, Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Bibliothek, Handzeichnungen und Kupferstichsammlung. drawing? Women clap, dance, and play lute and tambourine (dancing). There is also a statue of Pan holding panpipes. (K. Kallensee. Die Liebe des Vaters ... Berlin 1960. p. 54, medium not recorded)

IV: Saints

Other: [Steinle Dr] Steinle, Edward von (1810-1886). The Legend of St. Euphrosyne (1840). Leipzig art market (1940). drawing. Includes a street procession with figures in medieval costume playing flute, triangle and two tambourines. (sale [Wieland, etc.], Boerner, Leipzig, 1940, no. 807, pl. 39)

V: Mythology

Bacchanals: [Löhr Pa] Löhr, Emil Ludwig (1809-1876). Classical Mountain Landscape with a Bacchanalian Procession. Munich art market. At least one figure dances to her tambourine. (Münchner Maler im 19. Jahrhundert. vol. 3. Munich 1982. p. 65)

Satyrs: [Makart Pa] Makart, Hans (1840-1884). Satyr Family. no location. A female satyr has a tambourine. (H. J. Hansen, ed. Das pompöse Zeitalter; zwischen Biedermeier und Jugendstil. Oldenburg 1970. p. 126, no location)

VI: Literary and Historical Subjects/Figures

[A Baur Pa] Baur, Albert (1835-1906). Roman Banquet. Aachen, Suermondt Museum. A slave woman holds a tambourine. Amusing sort of caricature. very unimp. (Aachener Kunstblätter 45 [1974] 16)

X: Portraits/Conversation Pieces

[Feuerbach Pa] Feuerbach, Anselm (1829-1880). Miriam/A Woman with a Tambourine (1862). Berlin, Staatliche Museen. Genre portrait. The model was Nanna Risi. (G. Dehio. Geschichte der deutschen Kunst, IV/2. Berlin and Leipzig 1934. Abbildungen pl. 369; P. Rave. Deutsche Malerei des 19. Jahrhunderts. Berlin 1949. no. 182; Vis. Coll. 373.F433.90[d])

[Feuerbach Pa] _______. A Young Woman with a Tambourine. Nuremberg GNM. Genre portrait. (GNM Anzeiger 1966, p. 153)

[Horrak Dr] Horrak, Johann (1815-1870). Two Young Roman Women with Tambourines (1856). private collection. (H. Fuchs. Die oesterreichische Malerei des 19. Jahrhunderts. vol. II. Vienna 1973. p. 214)

[Monogrammist C Pa] Monogrammist C [German?, 19th century]. Italian Peasant Family (1837). Frankfurt am Main art market (1991). It's sort of a genre group portrait. The mother holds a large tambourine. (Burlington 133 [1991] Oct ad p. v)

[Neureuther Dr] Neureuther, Eugen Napoleon (1806-1882). Italian Woman with a Tambourine. Düsseldorf art market (1959). drawing. Genre portrait. She has a large tambourine with a row of pellet bells strung across the head. (C. G. Boerner, Düsseldorf, cat. no. 24 [1959] no. 394, pl. LV)

[Winterhalter Pa] Winterhalter, Franz Xaver (1805-1873). Young Italian Woman Holding a Tambourine (1834). no location. It's a large tambourine. (Gazette des Beaux-Arts 83 [March 1974] La chronique des arts no. 1262, p. 23. No location, but notes exh Hamburg-Altona, Altonaer Museum in Hamburg, 1973: Die Gemäldesammlung des Hamburgischen Senators Martin Johann Jenisch des Jüngeren [1793-1857])

XIII: Scenes of Everyday Life -- Outdoor

Landscapes: [Naumann Pa] Naumann, Carl Georg (1827-1907). Mosjeh Herkules. location unknown. Includes two children in a landscape. The boy flies a kite. There is a tambourine on the ground beside them. (Münchner Maler im 19. Jahrhundert. vol. 3. Munich 1982. p.215)

[Richter Pa] Richter, Ludwig (1803-1884). Waldbrunnen bei Ariccia. Berlin-Dahlem, Staatliche Museen. Includes a woman riding on a horse, playing a tambourine. (H. J. Neidhardt. Die Malerei der Romantik in Dresden. Leipzig 1976. no. 172, as 1851; P. Rave. Deutsche Malerei des 19. Jahrhunderts. Berlin 1949. no. 70, as 1831)

[Romako Pa] Romako, Anton (1832-1889). In the Abruzzi. Salzburg art market (1977). Includes a peasant woman dancing to her tambourine. (Alte und moderne Kunst 22/H.151 [1977]35 [minuscule reproduction])

Street Scenes: [CI Elbing] Anon., after [Jan Westpalm van] Hoorn (1817-1881)?. Elbing, the Alte Markt, View toward the North. lithograph. Includes an organ grinder (?) and a woman playing a large tambourine. (K. Hauke. Das Bürgerhaus in Ost- und Westpreussen. Tübingen 1967. [Das Deutsche Bürgerhaus, VIII] pl. 45)

[E Grünewald Pa] Grünewald, Ernst (1801-1848). View of the Schwab'sches Haus, Darmstadt. no location. Includes street musicians: an organ grinder (Kastenleier) and a woman playing a tambourine. (G. Haupt. Die Bau- und Kunstdenkmäler der Stadt Darmstadt. Darmstadt 1952. fig. 154, p. 75)

[Kaulbach] Kaulbach, Wilhelm von (1804-1874). German artists in Rome (1850). Munich, Neue Pinakothek. A group of revellers pass by, including a man playing a plucked stringed instrument and a dancing woman with a tambourine. (Münchner Maler im 19. Jahrhundert. vol. 2. Munich 1982. p. 287)

Village/Rustic Scenes: [Blaas Pa] Blaas, Karl von (1815-1894). Sunday Afternoon in Albano. location unknown. Beside an inn. Six girls in a swing, one of them with a tambourine. (exh Vienna, 1972: Österreichische Künstler und Rom ... pl. 26 [not exhibited])

[Feuerbach Pa] Feuerbach, Anselm (1829-1880). Gypsy Dance (1853). Hamburg KH. Includes two players of plucked stringed instruments (mandolins?) and a female dancer with a little tambourine. unimp. (A. Hentzen. Hamburger Kunsthalle. Meisterwerke der Gemälde Galerie. Cologne 1969. no. 258; MgB IV/5, p. 25)

[Knorr Pa] Knorr, Hugo (1834-1904). Gypsy Camp. Munich art market. A gypsy girl dances to her tambourine. (Die Weltkunst 52 [1982] 601 [fine color reproduction])

[Richter Pr] Richter, Ludwig (1803-1884). Saltarello. etching. A dancing couple is accompanied by a man playing a mandolin and a woman playing a tambourine. Another figure holds a mandolin. A woman in a horse-drain wagon plays a tambourine. (MgB IV/5, p. 81 [ok reproduction], as ca.1825)

[Sinding Pa] Sinding, Otto Ludwig (1842-1909). Tarantella (1883). location unknown. A wildly dancing group of gypsies, including two women and a man playing tambourines. (Münchner Maler im 19. Jahrhundert. vol. 4. Munich 1983. p. 163)

[Wasmann Pa] Wasmann, Friedrich (1805-1886). Tarantella. Hamburg art market (1989). Peasants play mandolin and tambourine (two strings of pellet bells at right angles across the head, JJ). A couple dances, she playing a tambourine. (Burlington 131 [1989] April ad p. xvii [fine color reproduction]; Imago Musicae 7 [1990] 182 [ok reproduction])

[Weller Pa] Weller, Theodor Leopold (1802-1880). Italian Peasants Returning Home. Munich, Neue Pinakothek. Includes a little girl dancing to her tambourine. (Münchner Maler im 19. Jahrhundert. vol. 4. Munich 1983. p. 359)

XIV: Scenes of Everyday Life -- Indoor

Balls: [Werner Pa] Werner, Carl Friedrich Heinrich (1808-1894). Carnival in the House of the Puggaerd Family, via Avignonese, Rome, 8.II.1836. Copenhagen, Thorvaldsen Museum. Includes a dancing couple with the man playing (or at least waving) a tambourine. (exh Nuremberg GNM, 1991-92: Künstlerleben in Rom. p. 440)

XV: Miscellaneous Figures

Children: [Dobyaschefsky Pa] Dobyaschefsky, Franz Joseph (1818-1867). "Die komische Oper." Vienna, Staatsoper, Staircase. Includes children playing a mandolin, a fife, and a tambourine (struck with a beater). (Salmen Katalog. p. 69)

[Laufberger Pr] Laufberger, Ferdinand (1829-1881). Curtain for the Neues Opernhaus, Vienna. engraving. Includes children playing shawm, bagpipe and tambourine. (Alte und moderne Kunst 13/H.96 [1968] 26 [poor reproduction])

Dancers: [Willich Pa] Willich, Cäsar (1825-1886). Gypsy Woman Dancing. Kaiserslautern, Pfalzgalerie. She dances to her tambourine. (Münchner Maler im 19. Jahrhundert. vol. 4. Munich 1983. p. 381 [color reproduction])

Itinerant/Street Musicians: [Richter Pr] Richter, Ludwig (1803-1884). Bänkelsängerparr mit Hund. woodcut. Street musicians. The man sings to his barrel-organ (Leierkasten) and the woman sings to her tambourine. (A. Matthes, ed. Das Ludwig Richter Hausbuch. Munich 1976. p. 220)

Musicians (amateur and professional): [Laufberger Dr] Laufberger, Ferdinand (1829-1881). Young Woman Holding a Tambourine. Vienna, Akademie der Bildenden Künste. drawing. Genre figure. (exh Vienna, 1972: Österreichische Künstler und Rom ... pl. 50)

Putti: [Makart Pa] Makart, Hans (1840-1884). Sketch for the Ceiling of the "Dumba-Zimmer." Several musical figures, including a putto with a tambourine. (Alte und moderne Kunst 21/H.147 [1976] 5 [ok color reproduction] location not recorded)

Other: [Winterhalter Pa] Winterhalter, Franz Xaver (1805-1873). Three Italian Girls (1833). Karlsruhe, Staatliche Kunsthalle. Genre group. One of them has a mandolin. There is an unplayed tambourine. (A. von Schneider. Badische Malerei des 18. Jahrhunderts. Karlsruhe 2/1968. no. 81, p. 226; Staatlich Kunsthalle Karlsruhe. Deutsche Meister 1800-1850 aus der Staatlichen Kunsthalle Karlsruhe. Karlsruhe 1984 pl. 43)

[EP] IBERIAN ARTISTS

XIII: Scenes of Everyday Life -- Outdoor

Street Scenes: [Villegas Pa] Villegas y Cordero, José (1848-1922). The Spanish Dance (1877). London art market (1961). A young woman dances with castanets, accompanied by a woman playing a guitar. There is a large unplayed tambourine. (Connoisseur 148 [1961] October ad p. xcvii)

Village/Rustic Scenes: [Pa Anon.] Anon., 19th century. Fandango Dancer. no location. A woman dances with castanets, accompanied by a man playing a guitar and a woman playing a tambourine. (MGG III, Taf. 55/1, after F. Carreras y Candi. Folklore y Costumbres de España. Barcelona 1944. vol. II, p. 199)

XIV: Scenes of Everyday Life -- Indoor

Inn Scenes: [Lameyer Pr] Lameyer y Berenguer, Francisco (1825-1877). Dancing Peasants. wood engraving. Peasants dance accompanied by a man playing a guitar and a woman playing a tambourine. (J. F. Rafols. El arte romático en españa. Barcelona 1954. p. 197)

Parties/Music Parties: [Aguado Pa] Aguado Bejarano, Manuel Cubral. The Soirée (1877?). London art market (1951). A little girl dances with castanets, accompanied by a man playing Portuguese guitar and a woman playing a tambourine. (Connoisseur 128 [1951] August ad p. [xli])

[I] ITALIAN ARTISTS

XIII: Scenes of Everyday Life -- Outdoor

Boating Parties: [Dalbono Pa] Dalbono, Edoardo (1841-1915). "La canzone nuova." Trieste, Museo Civico Revoltella. In a boat in a harbor a man plays a guitar and a woman plays a large tambourine. There is perhaps also a singer. (E. Lavagnino. L'arte moderna dai neoclassici al contemporanei. Turin 1956. [Storia dell'arte classica e italiana, 5] p. 750)

Fairs/Festivals: [CI Rome after 1871] Anon., after 1871. Festival of the Epiphany in the Piazza Novona, Rome. etching. Revellers, with much blowing of toy trumpets and beating of drums and tambourines. (Piazza Navona ... Rome 1970. no. 55, p. 69)

[Cortazzo Pa] Cortazzo, Oreste (1830/36-a.1912). Festival. Zürich art market (1979). Street musicians play hurdy-gurdy, violin, zamopgna, frame drum and tambourine. (Burlington 121 [1979] May ad p. [cvi] [color reproduction]; Connoisseur 201 [1979] May ad p. 24 [blurred color reproduction, the Burlington reproduction is better])

Village/Rustic Scenes: [Dalbono Pa] Dalbono, Edoardo (1841-1915). La Tarantella. no location. Two women dance, accompanied by a man and a woman playing tambourines. (E. Somarè. La pittura italiana dell'ottocento. Novara 1944. tav. 128)

[Sorbi Pa] Sorbi, Raffaelo (1844-1931). Bacchanal. Milan art market (1914). Revels in a vineyard with revellers dressed as in a bacchanal. A young woman cavorts with a tambourine. (La Galerie Pisani de Florence sale. Milan 1914. Pt. I, pl. XIII)

XV: Miscellaneous Figures

[Sc Palmi Museo Etnografico] Italian, Calabria [19th century?] Tambourine Player. Palmi (Reggio Calabria), Museo Etnografico. terra cotta figure. A peasant woman playing a tambourine. (Imago musicae 7 [1990] 19)